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Bones & Tissues

A&P Ch 6 (set 2)

Hyaline cartilage provides support, flexibility, and resilience Most abundant type; costal, laryngeal, articular, and nasal
Elastic cartilage contains elastic fibers external ear and epiglottis
Fibrocartilage collagen fibers have great tensile strength; shock absorber intervertebral discs and knee menisci
ligaments holds bones together
Appositional cells secrete matrix on outside of existing cartilage
Interstitial chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding cartilage from within
Calcification of cartilage occurs during normal bone growth old age
Axial skeleton bones of head, neck, and trunk
Appendicular skeletal bones of extremities and girdles which attach them to trunk
Functions of bones Support: framework for the body Protects brain, spinal cord, and vital organs levers for muscle actions Storage of calcium, phosphorous, and triglyceride Blood cell formation occurring in red bone marrow
Compact bone dense outer layer
Spongy bone cancellous less dense inner layer honeycomb of trabeculae filled with bone marrow located between layers of compact bone
Long bones longer than they are wide femur
Short bones cube shaped wrist and ankle sesamoid bones within tendons & patella
Flat bones thin, flat, slightly curved ribs, scapula, some skull bones
Irregular bones complicated shapes vertebrae, sphenoid, ethmoid
Diaphysis shaft compact bone collar surrounds medullary cavity
Medullary cavity within diaphysis contains yellow marrow in adults
Sesamoid bones tendons, patella
Epiphysis expanded ends contain spongy bone red bone marrow lined with hyaline cartilage at joint surfaces
Epiphyseal line remnant of growth plate
Periosteum outer connective tissue membrane on bone contains nerve fibers and blood vessels which enter the bone via nutrient foramina secured to underlying bone by Sharpey's fibers covers compact bone on the outside
Osteoblasts bone forming cells
Osteoclasts bone destroying cells becomes an osteocyte cells that resorb bone matrix come from blood stem cells
Osteogenic cells stem cells become osteoblasts in periosteum and endosteum
Endosteum membrane that lines inner surfaces of bone covers spongy bone within contains osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and stem cells
Hematopoietic Tissue red marrow red blood cells produced within proximal epiphysis of femur and humerus within spongy bone of irregular and flat bones in infants, found within medullary cavities and all spaces in spongy bone
Osteocytes mature bone cells each in a lacuna
Osteon Haverisan system structural unit of compact bone
Lamellae rings of mineralized matrix
Central canal Haversian canal contains blood vessels and nerves
Perforating canal Volkmann's canal at right angles to the central canal connects blood vessels and nerves of the periosteum and central canal
Lacunae small cavities that contain osteocytes hollowed out space
Canaliculi hair-like canals that connect lacunae to each other and to the central canal osteocyte projections project through allows all osteocytes to be connected to nutrient supply of blood
Trabeculae blood vessels go through align along lines of stress no osteons contain irregularly arranged lamellae, osteocytes, and canaliculi capillaries in endosteum supply nutrients
Osteoid organic bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts ground substance (proteoglycans, glycoproteins) Collagen fibers (protein) provide tensile strength and flexibility
Hydroxyapatites inorganic mineral salts 65% of bone mass mainly calcium phosphate crystals responsible for hardness and resistance to compression
Osteogenesis ossification bone tissue formation bone formation begins in the embryo bone growth continues until early childhood bone remodeling and repair occur lifelong
Intramembranous ossification bone develops from embryonic fibrous membrane forms flat bones, like clavicles, and cranial bones
Endochondral ossification bones form by replacing hyaline cartilage forms most of the rest of the skeleton
Interstitial growth increases the length of bones
Appositional growth increases the thickness of bones remodeling of all bones by osteoblasts and osteoclasts on bone surfaces
Epiphyseal plate growth in length of long bones
Proliferation zone growth zone growth of cartilage on the end of bone side of plate cartilage cells undergo mitosis
Hypertrophic zone cartilage cells enlarge
Calcification zone cartilage cells die, matrix is calcified
Ossification zone osteogenic new bone formed on diaphysis side of plate
Growth hormone stimulates growth in the epiphyseal plate
Thyroid hormone necessary to make growth hormone work
Testosterone and Estrogens promote adolescent growth spurts end growth by inducing epiphyseal plate
Bone deposit occurs where bone is injured or remodeled due to increased mechanical stress on bone requires vitamins C, D, and A requires calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, and manganese
Bone resorption Osteoclasts secrete lysosomal enzymes (digest organic matrix) hydrochloric acid converts calcium salts into soluble form dissolved matrix including Ca++ can enter the blood
Remodeling hormonal mechanisms maintain calcium levels in the blood mechanical and gravitational forces stimulated in response to mechanical stressors over several months final structure resembles original
Calcium is necessary for transmission of nerve impulses muscle contractions heart contractions blood clotting cell division
PTH parathyroid hormone released during low blood Ca++ levels stimulates osteoclasts to degrade bone matrix and release Ca++ blood Ca++ levels increase
Calcitonin causes osteoblasts to deposit calcium salts in bone lowers blood Ca++ levels release by thyroid
Wolff's law a bone grows or remodels in response to forces or demands placed on upon it Handedness results in bone of one upper limb being thicker and stronger curved bones are thickest where they are most likely to buckle trabeculae form along lines of stress large, bony projections occur where heavy, active muscles attach
Non-displaced fracture bone ends retain normal position
Displaced fracture bone ends out of normal alignment
Complete fracture broken all the way through
Incomplete fracture not broken all the way through
Linear fracture fracture is parallel to long axis of the bone
Transverse fracture fracture is perpendicular to long axis of bone
Compound fracture Open fracture bone ends penetrate skin
Simple fracture Closed fracture bone ends do not penetrate skin
Hematoma torn blood vessels hemorrhage clot forms site becomes swollen, painful, and inflamed
Fibrocartilagious callus phagocytic cells clear debris osteoblasts begin forming spongy bone within 1 week fibroblasts secrete collagen fibers to connect bone ends
Bony callus new trabeculae form a hard callus formation continues until firm union is formed in 2 months
Osteomalacia soft bones calcium salts not deposited caused by vitamin D deficiency or insufficient dietary calcium Same as Rickets in children
Rickets osteomalacia in children legs are bowed and deformed
Osteoporosis loss of bone mass because bone resorption outpaces deposit spongy bone of vertebrae and neck of femur most susceptible to fracture Caused by lack of estrogen, calcium, or vitamin D; petite body form; immobility; low TSH; diabetes Treatment includes calcium and vitamin D; hormone replacement therapy to slow bone loss Prevention includes weight-bearing exercise throughout life
tuberosity large rounded projection
trochanter large, blunt, irregular surface
tubercle small rounded projection
epicondyle raised area above a condyle
spine sharp, slender projection
process any bony prominence
head rounded bony articular end of a bone
facet smooth, nearly flat articular surface
condyle rounded articular projection
meatus canal-like passageway
sinus cavity within a bone
fossa shallow, basin-like depression
fissure narrow, slit-like opening
foramen round, or oval, opening through a bone
Cartilage contains no blood vessels or nerves
Perichondrium dense connective tissue that surrounds cartilage contains blood vessels for nutrient delivery to cartilage
Chondrocytes living cells of cartilage
Created by: cacbaz