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freshwater resources

ch 15 environmental science

QuestionAnswer
fresh water water that is relatively pure, with few dissolved salts.
floodplain areas nearest a river's course that are flooded periodically
wetlands systems that combine elements of freshwater and dry land
groundwater rainfall that percolated downward through the soil. makes up 1/5 of Earth's freshwater.
aquifers spongelike formation of rock, sand, or gravel that holds water.
confined aquifer or artesian aquifer exists when a water-bearing porous layer of rock sand, or gravel is trapped between upper and lower layers of less permeable substrate
unconfined aquifer has no thick upper layer to confine it, so its water is under less pressure and can be readily recharged by surface water.
consumptive use the act of removing water from an aquifer or surface water body and not returning it.
nonconsumptive use temporarily removes water from an aquifer or surface water body.
dam any obstruction placed in a river or stream to block the flow of water so that water can be stored in a reservoir.
sinkholes areas where the ground gives way with little warning
desalination the removal of salt from sea water or other water of marginal quality
pollution the release of matter or energy into the environment that causes undesirable impacts on the health and well-being of humans or other organisms.
Oligotrophic water body new body of water with clear water, low nutrients, and a high amount of oxygen
Eutrophic water body older body of water. Less oxygen and high nutrient content
point source discrete locations of water pollution, such as a factory or sewer pipe.
non-point-source pollution arises from multiple cumulative inputs over larger areas, such as farms, city streets, and residential areas.
septic systems wastewater runs from the house to an underground septic tank, inside which solids and oil separates from the water.
primary treatment physical removal of contaminants in settling tanks or clarifiers, generally removes about 60% of suspended solids from wastewater.
secondary treatment water is stirred and aerated so that aerobic bacteria degrade organic pollutants
freshwater marshes shallow water that allows plants to grow above the water surface
swamps shallow water rich in vegetation, occur in forested areas.
bogs ponds thoroughly covered with thick floating mats of vegetation, and can represent a stage in aquatic succession.
littoral zone region ringing the edge of a water body
benthic zone extends along the bottom of the entire water body, from shore to deepest point
limnetic zone the open portion of a lake or pond, away from the shore, sunlight penetrates shallow waters
profundal zone the volume of open water that sunlight doesnt reach. under the limnetic zone.
benefits of dams power generation, hydroelectric power produces no greenhouse gas, crop irrigations, drinking water, shipping , and recreational opportunities.
costs of dams habitat alteration, fisheries decline, population displacement, sediment capture, disruption of flooding, rick of failure, and lost of recreational opportunities.
dikes and levees built by governments and individuals to protect against floods along the banks of rivers to hold rising waters.
solutions to depletion of fresh water reduce demand with conservation and efficiency measures, desalination, agriculture demand can be reduced,and lessen residential and industrial water use.
Created by: lizziemp23 on 2009-01-25



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