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WVSOM -- Neuroanatomy -- Biochemistry of Vision

Refraction bending of light at anangled surface
What happens to light when it hits a glass surface perpendicular to light rays? does not bend
What does a convex lens do? causes light rays to converge to a focal point
What will a concave lens do? cause light rays to diverge
What does visible light range from? 400nm – 700 nm
Rods sensitive to light so good for dim light or night vision. Do not respond well to moving stimuli. Slow response time
Cones not sensitive to dim light and respond quickly. Daytime vision and color
How many cones per eye? 5 million
What are the 3 classes of cones? Blue, green and red
What are blue cones for? short wavelength
What are green cones for? medium wavelengths
What are red cones for? long wavelengths
What is photo pigment for? responsible for absorbing the energy from the light into a cascade of events
Where aer the photo receptors at? outer segments of the membranes
What does photopigment consist of? retinal and opsin
What is retinal? vit A derivative
What is opsin? glycoprotein
How many opsins are there? 4 – 1 for rods (scotopsin and then 3 in cones (red, green , blue)
What photopigment do rods have? rhodopsin
What are photoreceptors in the dark? at rest and somewhat depolarized
What happens to photoreceptors int eh presence of light? hyperpolarizes
How do the photoreceptors stay depolarized? Na+ channels open
How are Na+ channels in the dark? open
How are Na+ chennels in the light? closed
What gates are on Na+ channels? cGMP
What reduces G-protein concentration? transducin
How does transducin lower g-protein concentration? by activating a phosphodiesterase which reduces cGMP
What is the phototranduction pathway? light activates photopigment, activates tranducin, activates phosphodiesterase, reduces cGMP concentration, Na + chennels close and hyperpolarization occurs, glutamate release is reduced
What does phototransduction pathway cause? amplification
What inhibits bipolar cells? glutamate
Created by: Todd Jamrose Todd Jamrose