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Tera's Clinical

LP1 -Vaccinations Review

Most vaccines are given in a child's first ____ to ___ months of life? 15-18
T or F: Vaccine storage should follow specific manufacturer's guidelines? True
T or F: Sunlight never effects vaccines False
T or F: Vaccines have trade names True
A child with an egg allergy cannot receive which vaccines? MMR, Varicella, Influenza
MAs must know symptoms of side effects, contraindications and allergies of vaccines and inform the parents. What is provided to the parents for this? A vaccination information sheet
What does VIS stand for? Vaccine information sheet
What must be done by parents before vaccines are given to children? A written consent must be signed
What does VAERS stand for? Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System
If any adverse reaction occur, what will the provider do? The provider will report it to VAERS, and fill out an event form for the national immunization program.
T or F: All children must have an immunization record as part of their personal permanent medical record? True
What information must be included in the EMR? -Date of administration -Vaccine given -Vaccine information sheet given to parent/guardian -Manufacturer name -Lot # and expiration date -Site and route of administration -Name, address + title of person administering -Source of vaccine (f,s,p)
T or F: record keeping is mandated by both state and federal laws True
T or F: Immunizations are not included in the TPMS. False
What do vaccinations do? Stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against pathogens
If you cannot administer a vaccine do to contraindication, what must be done? You must carefully document this and notify the provider.
T or F: Repeated doses of vaccines are not necessary False
T or F: Only compatible vaccines may be given in any one visit to avoid drug interactions True
T or F: If you miss a vaccine, you are out of luck False- vaccine "catch up" schedules are avilable
What is the goal for vaccine schedules? Complete vaccination by 15-18 months, 2yrs.
What times are boosters given? Upon school entry and every 10 yrs
What is herd immunity? Protection for those who cannot get vaccinated by vaccinating as many of those who can.
What is on a VIS sheet? What the vaccine is used for What reactions to look out for
What disease is still a problem in Africa but not in the U.S? Polio
The person who draws up and prepares the vaccine also.....? Administers and documents it.
Who may not get a vaccine? -Immunocompromised -Sick, fever -Some cancer patients -Pregnant patients (rubella)
What must be done after opening a multidose vial? You must date and initial it, it is good then for 28 days.
What vaccines and diluents must be thrown out and not used? -Expired -Without a label -Those drawn or prepared but not given immediately
Examples of localized infections -rash -redness -soreness -itching -minor swelling
Major life threatening reaction, can cause loss of consciousness? Anaphylaxis
What is included in vaccine package inserts? -Route of administration -Purpose -Contraindications -Possible side effects
Why do we immunize? To prevent the spread of disease
How are most vaccine-preventable diseases spread? Person to person
What happens to vaccines if they are exposed to ranges of temperature outside of their ranges? They have decreased potency/effectiveness
How many times should the temperature be tested and how is it recorded? Twice a day, recorded in a log
If the expiration date on a label is a month and year, how long can the vaccine be used for? It can be used through the last day of the month labeled.
Some children up to 8yrs and those who are receiving the flu vaccine for the first time...... Will need two doses to be fully protected. The doses should be 28 days apart.
Who may receive a nasal flu vaccine? Healthy children 2-8yrs. Those with minor illness such as diarrhea or upper respiratory tract infection with out fever can still receive the spray.
What is immunity? When the body is protected from infectious diseases due to the development of antibodies.
Antigens are...? Foreign substances
Antibodies are.....? Proteins produced in response to the presence of antigens
Immunization (definition) The process of introducing or providing immunity artificially by administering an immunizing agent.
Active immunization Response to vaccine or toxoid
Passive immunization Response to donor antitoxins or antibodies
Another name for "live" vaccine Attenuated
Which vaccines are live? MMR, Varicella, Influenza (nasal), Zostavax
Example of a dead vaccine? Influenza (IM)
What does tetanus cause? Lockjaw
What does diptheria cause? A thick covering in back of the throat
Pertussis causes? whooping cough, difficult eating/breathing/drinking, brain damage, death
What does the "a" mean in DTap? It stands for acellular. It means that the pertussis component only contains part of the pertussis organism.
What are the four combinations of tetanus, diptheria and pertussis vaccine? DTaP, Tdap, Td, DT. *Uppercase=full strength of that toxin
How is the DTap vaccine administered? IM, in the thigh with a 1inch needle
Where is the DTap vaccine stored? refrigerator
Does the DTap vaccine have a diluent? No
What is Hepatitis A? A serious liver disease, causes flu like symptoms, jaundice
How is Hep A spread? Fecal-oral route
How is Hep A administered? IM, upper arm or thigh with a 1inch needle
How is Hep A stored? Refrigerator
Does Hep A have a diluent? No
Hep A schedule 2 doses, a least 6mo apart
Hepatits B causes? Serious liver disease
Hep B is spread by? Body fluids, needles, mother to child
How is Hep B administered? IM in arm or thigh with 1"needle
How is Hep B stored? Refrigerator
Does Hep B have a diluent? No
What vaccines are stored in the freezer? Zostavax, MMR
What vaccines have diluents? Varicella, Zostavax, Hib and MMR
What does Hib protect against? Haemophilus Influenzae Type B. A serious bacterial disease which can cause meningitis, pneumonia, epiglottitis, pericarditits. Symptoms= rash, stiff neck, fever, septicemia, death
Which vaccines are SQ? MMR, varicella, zostavax
Which vaccine is oral? Rotavirus (RV)
what does HPV protect against? Cervical cancer, anal cancer, genital warts *mostly no symptoms
How is HPV spread? Spread by sexual body fluids
HPV schedule? 9-26 yrs both boys and girls
What does measles cause? Fever, cough, rash, runny nose, may cause seizures or death
What does mumps cause? Virus that causes fever, headache, muscle pains, and swollen glands
What does rubella cause? Rash, arthritis(women), mild fever, can cause miscarriage
What are MMR diseases spread by? Measles= breathing, coughing, sneezing Mumps= mucus Rubella= Airborne dropletts
Where are SQ injections usually given? Triceps of the arm
What is the needle length for SQ injections? 5/8 in
What does the meningococcal conjugate vaccine protect against? Meningitis, bacterial infection of the covering of the brain and spinal cord
MCV4= meningococcal vaccine for 55 and younger
MPSV4= meningococcal vaccine for 55+
Meningitis is spread by? Kissing, coughing
Meningitis symptoms fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, fatigue, septicemia
What does conjugate mean? Antigen is attached to protein to enhance reaction
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) protects against? Pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, otitis media, chest pain, respiratory problems
What medication is used for PCV13? Prevnar13
Polio vaccine (IPV) protects against? Polio, a virus that enters thru the mouth
Symptom of polio? paralysis
RV protects against? rotavirus, severe diarrhea
What disease is associated with rotavirus? Kawasaki disease
RV is spread by what? fecal-oral route
Zostavax protects against? Herpes zoster (shingles)
Symptoms of shingles? Painful rash on one side of body, fevers, stomachaches
administration of zostavax? Over the age of 55
Varivax (Varicella, VAR)protects against? chicken pox
Symptoms of chicken pox? fever, rash, decreased appetite
Influenza vaccine protects against? Flu
Influenza vaccine administration? Yearly over 6mo, may need two doses if never received it before
Combo vaccines are? Pentacel Pediarix Kinrix MMRV or ProQuad Twinrix
Pentacel contains? DTaP, IVP, Hib
Pediarix contains? DTap, IPV, Hep B
Kinrix contains? DTap, IPV
MMRV or ProQuad contains? MMR and Varicella
Twinrix contains? Hep A and Hep B
Vaccines that need to be reconstituted? -Pentacel -ProQuad -Varivax -MMR -Zostavax
Diluents can be? Sterile water, sodium chloride
What should you do when you reconstitute? Date and time when reconstituting took place, should be written on syringe
Frozen storage temp? -50 to -15 Celsius
Refrigerated temp? 2-8 Celsius
Created by: Jennifer Sawvell Jennifer Sawvell