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LPN Phase 2 Exam 2

Study Guide

Barium Enema An enema using a white, chalky solution containing barium, in preparation for series of X-ray images of the lower intestine (colon). The barium outlines the colon on the X-ray film.
Barium Swallow A test that involves filling the esophagus, stomach, and small intestines with a barium solution in preparation for an X-ray, to define the anatomy of the upper digestive tract. Also known as upper gastrointestinal series.
Bronchoscopy is a procedure during in which an examiner uses a viewing tube to evaluate a patient's lung and airways including the voice box and vocal cord, trachea, and many branches of bronchi.
Chest X-Ray is a painless, noninvasive test that creates pictures of the structures inside your chest, such as your heart, lungs, and blood vessels.
Colonoscopy is an exam used to detect changes or abnormalities in the large intestine (colon) and rectum. During a colonoscopy, a long, flexible tube (colonoscope) is inserted into the rectum.
Fiberoptic Colonoscopy requires sedation, the lining of the entire colon and rectum is examined. the test is performed with a thin, lighted tube with a camera attached, but in a colonoscopy, the tube is guided further into the colon to visualize the entire colon
Sigmoidoscopy thin, lighted tube with a camera at the end, is inserted into the rectum and guided into the sigmoid colon (the lower portion of the colon). This test reveals polyps, tumors, and other abnormalities in the rectum and sigmoid colon.
Endoscopy means looking inside and typically refers to looking inside the body for medical reasons using an endoscope, an instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body. inserted directly into the organ.
Cystoscopy is a test that allows your doctor to look at the inside of the bladder and the urethra using a thin, lighted instrument called a cystoscope . The cystoscope is inserted into your urethra and slowly advanced into the bladder
Culture a laboratory test involving cultivation of microorganisms or cells in a special growth medium.
Cytology The study of cells, including their formation, origin, structure, function, biochemical activities, and pathology.
Echocardiogram is a diagnostic test which uses ultrasound waves to make images of the heart chambers, valves and surrounding structures. It can measure cardiac output and is a sensitive test for fluid around the heart (pericardial effusion).
Electrocardiogram A recording of the electrical activity of the heart. Abbreviated ECG and EKG. An ECG is a simple, noninvasive procedure.
Electroencephalogram is a test that detects electrical activity in your brain using small, flat metal discs (electrodes) attached to your scalp. Your brain cells communicate via electrical impulses and are active all the time, even when you're asleep. EEG recording.
Expectorate eject mucus, sputum, or fluids from trachea and lungs by coughing or spitting.
Fixative any substance used to preserve gross or histologic specimens of tissue for later examination.
Hemoccult a test that detects occult blood in feces.
Midstream Urine Specimen is urine collected after voiding is initiated (midstream) and before voiding is complete.
Occult Hidden
Paracentesis is a procedure to take out fluid that has collected in the belly (peritoneal fluid). This fluid buildup is called ascites camera.gif. Ascites may be caused by infection, inflammation, an injury, or other conditions, such as cirrhosis or cancer.
Residual Urine urine left in the bladder after voiding
Sensitivity a laboratory method of determining the effectiveness of antibiotics usually performed in conjunction with culture
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is produced in the mitochondria from nutrients and is capable of releasing energy that in turn enables the cells to work.
Active Transport requires energy, it is a force that moves molecules into cells without regard for their positive or negative charge Moves fluid and electrolytes from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration.
Passive Transport the movement of small molecules by diffusion across a cell membrane using; Diffusion, Osmosis, and filtration. NO cellular energy is needed to move substances from a high concentration to a low concentration.
Isotonic a solution of same osmotic pressure; expands the body’s fluid volume without causing a fluid shift
Hypertonic a solution of higher osmotic pressure; pulls fluid from the cells.
Hypotonic a solution of lower osmotic pressure; solution moves into cells, causing them to enlarge.
Homeostasis is a relative constancy in the internal environment of the body, naturally maintained by adaptive responses that promote healthy survival. (BALANCE)
Intracellular fluid inside the cell, larger of the two compartments (extracellular). Accounts for 66% of body fluid.
Extracellular any fluid outside of the cell. Accounts for 34%.
Interstitial fluid is between the cells or in the tissues. Accounts for 27% of fluid.
Intravascular fluid is the plasma within the vessels, accounts for remaining 7%
Bicarbonate (HCO3) 22-24 mEq/L. Alkaline electrolyte whose major function is the regulation of the acid base balance. Acts as a buffer to neutralize acids in the body. Kidneys selectively regulate the amount of bicarbonate retained or excreted.
Buffer one of the 3 systems that work to keep the body’s pH within the narrow range of normal (kidneys, blood buffers, respiratory system). Think of blood buffers as “chemical sponges”, they circulate throughout the body in pairs, neutralizing excess a/bs
Sodium a Cation (positive charged ion), is the most abundant electrolyte in the body; 134-142 mEq/L. Major extracellular electrolyte. controls the extracellular fluid volume mainly through osmotic pressure because water follows sodium.
Potassium the dominant intracellular cation, is 3.5-5 mEq/L. regulation of water and electrolyte content incell. When potassium moves out the cell, sodium and hydrogen ions move in resulting in the regulation of acid base balance.
Chloride 96-105 mEq/L, is the chief anion in interstitial and intravascular fluid. necessary for the formation of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice. regulates osmotic pressure between the compartments and assisting in the regulation of acid base
Calcium 4.5-5.8 mEq/L; has a depressing or sedative effect on neuromuscular irritability and thus promotes normal transmission of nerve impulses; it also regulates normal muscle contractions and relaxation.
Phosphorus chiefly present as hydrogen phosphate (HPO4), an intracellular anion, 4mEq/L. Phosphorus and calcium have an inverse relationship in the body; an increase in one causes a decrease in the other. Phosphorus contributes to the support and maintenance of bone
Magnesium the second most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid, 1.5-2.4mEq/L, 60% found in bones, 39% found in muscle and soft tissue, 1% found in the extracellular fluid, most of which is cerebrospinal fluid. Magnesium now linked as a cofactor in the activat
Acupressure Uses gentle pressure at similar points on the body. Pressure is sometimes applied with a finger and sometimes with a small, blunt object. Acupressure is used primarily for prevention and relief of symptoms of muscle tension.
Acupuncture is a method of stimulating certain points (acupoints) on the body by the insertion of special needles to modify the perception of pain, normalize physiologic functions, or treat or prevent disease.
Allopathic Medicine Traditional or conventional Western medicine.
Alternative Therapies Often include the same interventions as complementary therapies, but frequently become the primary treatment modality that replaces allopathic medicine.
Armoatherapy Uses pure essential oils produced from plants, to provide health benefits.
Biofeedback is a non-invasive method of determining a patients neuromuscular and autonomic nervous system response by measuring body functions such as blood pressure, pulse, muscle tension, and skin temp. w/the use of electronic or elecromechanical equipment. These r
Chiropractic Therapy has been in existence since the late 1800’s. is based on a holistic belief in the body’s capacity to take care of itself.
Complementary Therapies are therapies used in addition to conventional treatment recommended by a person’s health care provider. Does not substitute for but rather complement the conventional treatment.
Herbal Therapy
Holistic Nursing addresses and treats the mind-body-spirit of the patient. Nurses use interventions such as relaxation, guided imagery, music therapy, simple touch, massage, and prayer.
Imagery or visualization techniques use the conscious mind to create mental images to evoke physical changes in the bod, create a sense of improved well-being, and enhance self-awareness.
Meridians Channels of energy.
Pharmaceuticals drugs
Qi form of energy or life force.
Reflexology is the thought that it is possible to exert an effect on the entire body by applying pressure to specific areas on the feet. Is based on the premise that there are zones and reflexes in different parts of the foot that correspond one-to-one to each part,
Relaxation is the state of a generalized decrease in cognitive, physiologic, or behavioral arousal. Is also defined as the act or process of arousal reduction.
T'ai chi or Taiji was original developed as a martial art in 17th century china. In Taiji practice, emphasis is placed on relaxing the body and calming and focusing the mind. Is especially well suited as a low-to medium- intensity exercise for older adults.
Therapeutic Massages is massage performed by trained professionals to manipulate the soft tissues of the body and assist with healing.
Yoga has emerged as a therapeutic treatment and is now being recognized by western medical practice.
Intravenous pertaining to the inside of a vein as in inserting a hollow-bore needle into the lumen of a vein to deliver fluids and medications.
Inflitration presence of intravenous fluids within the subcutaneous space surrounding a venipuncture site.
Lumen the inside of the hollow shaft of a needle or a catheter.
Patency a condition of being open and unblocked
Peripheral pertaining to the outside surface, or surrounding area of an organ structure or field of vision.
Vasoconstriction when the lumen of the vessel narrows, thus hindering blood flow and resulting in less edema.
Vasodilation when the lumen of the blood vessels widens, thus increases the blood flow.
Venipuncture most common method of drawing a blood sample, involving inserting a hollow-bore needle into the lumen of a large vein.
Gauge a standard or scale of measurement of the needle.
Percutaneous through the skin or mucous membrane.
Occlusion an obstruction or closing off in a canal, vessel, or passage of the body.