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Stack #194807

Greek Army, 480 BC, wanted to rule Greece, annihilated their army famous battle Thermopylae
1200 bc new group not advanced in Mycenae, distant relatives Bronze age, spoke greek dorian's
Messenians, peasants forced to stay on the land they worked 725 bc messenia, sparta conquered helots
greek, father of history, lived in 5th century, historian, made accounts of war between Greece and Persia Herodotus
Athenians, procedure under athenian demo in which a prominent citizen could be expelled, punishment given to citizens ostracism
large wave of indo-europeans, very advanced, around 2000 bc, greek mainland, very powerful rulers, later became contact with Minoan civilization Mycenaean's
Greeks, a time of depression, 1150-750 bc, greece, many epics were told during this time, included the lliad and odyssey Dark age
Home to fewer than 10,000 residents, city-state, 750 bc, greek city-state, helped control different parts of a region a polis was made up of a city and its surrounding countryside, which included numerous villages polis
between greece and the persian empire, a war, around 546 bc, begain in Ionia on the coast of Anatolia, persians conquered the area, greeks revolted. persian wars
Athenians and persians, an alliance formed by the Athens after the persian war, 470 bc, athens, began to use its power to control the other league members. It moved league headquarters to Athens, and used military force against members Delian League
greeks, another name for the dark age, 1150-750 bc, during this time epic stories were told such as Lliad and Odyssey Homeric age
Rulers, that sometimes seized control of the government by appealing to the common people for support, around 621 bc, in many city-states, considered harsh and cruel Tyrant
Very rich families, government ruled by a small group of noble, landowning families, greek city-states, ruled by rich families. gained power after serving in king's military cavalry Aristocracy
citizens gathered here, fortified hilltop, on a hill, city-state, discussed city government, they would discuss different parts of their government acropolis
Mycenaeans and troy, ten year war between Mycenaeans and troy, during 1200s took place in Troy, trojan prince kidnapped Helen, beautiful wife of greek kind, besieged and destroyed Troy Trojan War
a ruler who is unconstrained by law through time, in all civilizations, they have sole power over their state, dictator
greeks, a serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war or betrayal, 400 bc, in greece, tragic flaw usually caused the hero's downfall Often this flaw was hubris, or excessive pride. dramas featured main character, tragic hero tragedy
rulers, a state or country that is not led by hereditary monarch, from ancient times till now, in a civilization, citizens have say, elect people to rule them republic
greek philosophers, reliance on reason as the basis for establishment of religious truch, ancient greek civiliation, based reason on religion and facts rationalism
athenian radical democrat and statesman, athens, he was the leading man in athens until his death, he had control of Athens Pericles
Son of Philip II, King of Macedon, 356-322, conquered the Persian Empire, won in battle Alexander the Great
People living in this age, period between the death of Alexander the Great and conquest of Egypt by Rome, 323 bc, in the Eastern Mediterranean, way of thinking changed. dramatic political events Hellenic Age
Athens and Persians, a war between the two city-states, around 431 bc, on land and in sea, they attacked on different approaches, athens had a stronger navy, Sparta had a stronger army Peloponnesian War
Heraclites, the theory that the earth was at the center of the universe, 330 bc, greece, first model showed this, they first believed that everything revolved around the Earth Geocentric Theory
Periclean Athens, a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through represen. city-state of athens, let citizens have power, was an important legacy of Periclean Athens Direct Democracy
Greek philosophers, both opposing philosophy, during the life of plato, greece, idealism is often opposed to realism in which the real is said to have a so-called absolute existence, Idealism, Realism
came from the Greeks, theory that the sun is at the center of the universe, during the ancient greek civilization, THey believe that everything revolves around the sun, sun is at the center of all plants Heliocentric Theory
Socrates, method of teaching by question and answer, 399 bc, greece, he used it to elicit truths from his students, encouraged greeks to question themselves Socratic Method
ancient philosophers, They were lovers of wisdom, around 399 bc, they lived in greece, studied human belief, thought and knowledge, questioned factors of the earth Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Greeks, they are three beautiful columns, 600 bc, greece each one had different details, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
This one was the most simple - Doric, Ionic, Corinthian Doric
Plato, he set forth his vision of a perfectly governed society, 360 bc, greece, in his ideal society, all citizens would fall naturally into three groups; farmers and artisans, warriors, and ruling class the Republic
roman govern, earliest code of Roman law, Rome, held all of the laws for their empire, had law on civil, criminal and religious matters twelve tables
Rome citizen, one of the ordinary citizens of ancient Rome, during ancient roman empire, were distinct from the patricians, were of a lower class Plebeians
Upper class Roman, during the ancient roman empire, rome, a member of an aristocratic family of ancient rome. their privileges included exclusive right to hold high office Patrician
Chief magistrates, in ancient Rome, one of the two chief magistrates who were elected to govern annually, ancient rome, government official living in a foreign city to promote the commercial interests of the official's own state and protect its citizens. Consul
Romans and Carthages, name given to the three wars between Rome and Carthage in the 3rd and 2nd centuries bc, 3rd and 2nd centuries, three wars, both countries were trying to get the upper hand Punic Wars
Military, a victory won at such great cost to the victor that it is tantamount to a defeat, in a battle or war, the victory also comes with tons of losses, Pyrrhic victory
virgil, national epic, between 30 and 19 bc, rome, it had great literary importance, told stories of roman heroes including gods aeneid
Romans, a group of three rulers who were Julius Caesar, Crassus, pompey, 60 bc, rome, they dominated rome for the next ten years, had the most power 1st Triumvirate
roman general and statesman whose dictatorship was pivotal in Rome's transition from republic to empire, rome, tough yet great leader, transformed Rome Julius Caesar
a river, ancient name of a stream in central Italy that flowed into the Adriatic sea a short distance north of ariminum, Italy, provided water, stream that ran into the adriatic sea Rubicon River
Romans, three of caesar's supporters, including his adopted son Octavian, joined together to form the this. Three were Octavian, an experienced general named Mark Anthony and powerful politician named Lepidus 2nd Triumvirate
the smaller of the two legislative bodies of the Congress of the United States. When: During periods of government. Where: In certain countries. How: They make important decisions. Why: They create laws and rules. senate
A few people. in political philosophy, form of govern in which the supreme power is vested in a few persons During periods of govern such as ancient Greece. the govern is controlled by a faction that acts in its own interests. Oligarchy
Roman peace. When: 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.Where: Rome. How: The period of peace and prosperity.Why: Everyone was calm and at an agreement Pax Romana
general. What: Carthaginian general. When: 247-183 B.C. Where: Carthage. How: He has a famous march. Why: It was on Rome from Spain across the Alps Hannibal
Roman. What: Roman poet. When: 70-19 B.C. Where: Rome. How: He created the Aeneid. Why: It is the most influential piece of literature in ancient Rome. Virgil
Romans. What: Greek word meaning "of all gods."When: Roman empire. Where: Rome. the best preserved major edifice of Ancient Rome. The building’s enormous dome and the walls supporting the dome form a masterpiece of concrete construction. Pantheon
An army leader. What: a strong willed army leader named Diocletian became the new emperor. When: In A.D. 284. Rome. He severely limited personal freedoms.Why: However, he restored the empire and increased its strength. Diocletion
Roman. What: first emperor of Rome. When: 63 B.C.-AD 14Where: RomeHow: He restored order. Why: It was in distress after a century of mishaps. augustus caesar
A religious person. What: any religious doctrine opposed to the dogma of a particular church.When: Starting in ancient times. Where: In a church. Heresy
Romans. What: large Roman farm. When: Ancient Rome. Where: Rome. How: in ancient Rome, an agricultural estate, especially one that was worked by slavesWhy: It grew crops to sell to other citizens. Latifundia
Romans. What: Founders of Rome. When: Born in 771 B.C. Where: Rome. How: This is according to a myth. Why: Myths are not always true and are passed down through generations. Romulus and Remus
Roman ruler. What: title of a magistrate in ancient RomeWhen: Ancient Rome. Where: Rome. How: In times of emergency the Senate picked the dictator. Why: Then it was ratified by the comitia curiata. Dictator
Ancient people. What: A famous ancient city. When: Ancient times. Including the 9th century. Modern day Tunis. great structure. Carthage had two splendid harbors, connected by a canal. Above the harbors on a hill was the Byrsa, a walled fortress. Carthage
Roman empireWhat: Roman emperor, the first Roman ruler to be converted to Christianity.When: 306-337 BC Where: Rome. How: He liked the traits of Christians. Why: The belief of one god appealed to him. Constantine
Muslim, Abu-Bakr What: A Muslim ruler When: 632 B.C. Where: Islam Why: a title taken by Islamic rulers such as the Turkish sultans that asserts religious authority to rule,How: derived from that of Muhammad Caliph
Muslims What: the art of beautiful handwriting.When: Around the tenth century. Where: The Muslim Empire. Calligraphy
Arabians. What: a nomadic Arab. When: Ancient Arab. Where: Arab. Why: They traveled from place to place. How: a nomadic Arab of the desert regions of Arabia and North Africa Bedouins
Believers in Islam. What: means who has submitted. When: Around 613 B.C. Where: Mecca. Why: People who agreed to this basic principle of Islam were called Muslims.How: Muhammad was the sent prophet. Muslim
Muslim God. What: He was the one god Muslims believed in. When: A.D. 570 .Where: Mecca. Why: They were monotheistic. How: They only worshipped one god Allah
Muhammad was born here. What: The birthplace of Muhammad. When: During the life of Muhammad. Where: 200 miles north of Yathrib. Mecca
born to a powerful Meccan family. What: founder of the Muslim religion. When: around A.D. 750 Where: Mecca. Why: He took a great interest in religion. How: He spent time alone in prayer and meditation Muhammad
: Muslims. What: The holy book of Muslims. When: Muslim Empire. Where: Islam. Why: It was suggested that revelations be recorded.How: They collected it in a book. Qur'an
Muslims. What: An ancient shrine. When: During Muhammad's lifetime. Where: Mecca. Why: It was also called the house of Allah. How: It contains the Holy Black stone. Ka'aba
Islam's. What: The town that Muhammad traveled to that was once called Yathrib. When: 622 B.C. went here, because he was facing hostility. They feared that Mecca would lose its position as a pilgrimage center if people accepted Muhammad’s beliefs. Medina
Muslims What: means submission to the will of Allah. When: around 613 B.C. Where: Mecca. Why: People who agreed to this basic principle of Islam were called Muslims.How: They were converts or born that way. Islam
Islam's. What: The ninth month of the Islamic calendar. When: ninth month of the Islamic year. Where: Islam. Why: During this time Muslims must fast. How: They must fast between dawn and dusk. Ramadan
Muslims. What: Muslim worship place. When: Muslim religion. Where: In a mosque. Why: They gather to pray. How: They must cleanse themselves before every time they pray. Mosque
A family that came into power. 661. Muslim Empire. The Umayyads moved the Muslim capital to Damascus.Umayyads abandoned the simple life of previous caliphs and surrounded themselves with wealth and ceremony similar to that of non-Muslim rulers. Umayyads
Muslims. The guidance of the Qur’an and Sunna was assembled in a body of law. Muslim society. Mecca This system of law regulates the family life, moral conduct, and business and community life of Muslims.How: It provided structure in a Muslim's life. Shiri'a
Muslims. What: followers of Muhammad's example. When: Before 750. Where: Mecca. Why: They did not outwardly resist the rulers. How: They were the discreet group of non-followers Sunni
: Muslims. What: a member of the Muslim dynasty. When: AD 909 to 1171. Where: They ruled North Africa and parts of Egypt. Why: Descended from Muhammad's daughter and her husband. How: They ruled at one time. Fatimids
Muslims. What: One of the greatest cities in the Muslim world. When: Muslim society. Where: In Iraq. Why: It is located on the Tigris River. How: This provided a great place for trade. Baghdad
Muslims. Five duties Muslims have to carry out. During a Muslims life. Originated in Mecca. Why: They ensure that Muslims live their religion while living in their community. How: One of them was prayer, and they have to pray five times a day. The five pillars
Four caliphs. What: They made great progress in their quest to spread Islam. When: Around 634. Where: They started spreading to the north RIghtly-guided
Muslims. What: Muhammad's example. When: During the life of Muhammad. Where: Islam. Why: Muslims believe that Muhammad’s mission as a prophet was to receive the Qur’an.How: To demonstrate how to apply it in life. Sunna
Muslims. What: They did not accept the Umayyads rule. When: Around 750. Where: Arab. Why: They believed the caliph needed to be a descendant of the Prophet. How: the name meant the "party" of the Ali. Shi'a
Muslims. What: They rejected the luxurious life of the Umayyads.When: Around 750. Where: Arab. Why: They pursued a life of poverty. How: They were also devoted to the spiritual path of life. Sufi
non- Arabs. What: language and people found in large sections of North Africa.When: Arabian society. Where: Mostly found in Morocco. Why: They made up a native population Berbers
Caliph al-Ma’munWhat: a combination library, academy, and translation center. When: In the early 800's. Where: Baghdad. Why: This is where they would keep written records. How: They collected records from ancient times. House of Wisdom
Traders. What: A major trade and intellectual city. When: During the time of Muhammad. Where: Mali. Why: It was formerly famous for its gold trade. How: It was once a major trade route Timbuktu
Muslims. What: a campaign waged by Muslims in defense of the Islamic faithWhen: During an outrage. Where: Islam. Why: It was against people, organizations, or countries regarded as hostile to Islam. How: They created a relentless campaign. Jihad
Between the vassals and lords What: a two sided bargain. When: At the end of the 19th century Where: Europe. How: vassals held land from lords in exchange for military serviceWhy: It was an exchange. Feudalism
Europeans What: people who could not lawfully leave the place where they were bornWhen: During the feudal system of Europe. Where: Europe. How: They were not slaves. Why: What their labor produced belonged to the lord. Serf
European. The person receiving a fief. During the feudal system of Europe.Europe. Charles the Simple, the lord, and Rollo, the vassal, showed how this two- sided bargain worked It depended on the control of the land. Vassal
: Knight. What: Part of a knights training. When: Medieval timesWhere: Europe. How: he waited on his hosts and began to practice fighting skills.Why: This happened at the age of 7. Page
A lord. What: The land that they granted. When: 19th centuryWhere: Europe How: In exchange for military protection and other services, a lord, or landowner, granted land called a fief.Why: The person receiving a fief was called a vassal. Fief
Somebody in position or role. What: the formal installation of somebody in a position or role, especially an official oneWhen: When the person reaches the qualifications happens within a ceremony, the appointment of bishops in Roman catholic church Investiture
People of the Roman Catholic Church. What: Church law When: After 800. Where: Europe. How: in matters such as marriage and religious practicesWhy: It kept the Church under control with these rules. Canon Law
Bishops and priests What: All religious leaders under the ruling of the pope. When: 800 Where: Europe. Clergy
High class. What: Nobles. When: Medieval times. Where: Europe. How: They were the fighters. Why: Highest group of medieval writers. Nobility
Europeans the largest city former capital of Turkey; rebuilt on ancient Byzantium by Constantine I fourth century. Medieval times. Europe. the council 869 that condemned Photius become the patriarch of Constantinople
Nobles. What: A house and land that is owned by a noble. When: before 1776 Where: The house and land around it. How: It was owned by an medieval noble. Why: Nobles tended to be very wealthy. Manorism
: Lords What: The feudal system of tenure, whereby a person receiving a grant of land from a lordWhen: Medieval times. Where: Europe. How: could himself become a lord by subdividing and subletting Sub-infeudation
Clergy, a ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed church officials before 1075 in Europe Whoever controlled held the real power in naming bishops, who were very influential clergy that kings sought to control. Lay investiture
Knights What: a complex set of ideals, demanded that a knight fight bravely in defense of three masters.When: 1100's Where: Europe. Chivalry
Nobles. What: A house and land that is owned by a noble. When: before 1776 Where: The house and land around it. How: It was owned by an medieval noble. Why: Nobles tended to be very wealthy. Manor
Knights What: mock battles When: 1100's Where: Europe Tournament
They were in the lowest social class. When: Medieval times. Where: Europe. How: They would live on lords' land. Why: They toiled in the field. Peasant
Concerning the pope. pope being the head of not only the religious world. Medieval times. Where: Europe. How: in the Roman Catholic Church, relating to a dissolved marriage between somebody who has been baptized and somebody who has not Petrine Theory
Charles the Hammer What: Mayor of the palace in 719. When: 719 Where: The palace. How: Charles Martel extended the Franks’ reign to the north, south, and east.Why: He also defeated Muslim raiders from Spain at the Battle of Tours in 732. Charles Martel
Franks. Royal house of Franks after 8th century until their replacement in 10th centuryMedieval ages Europe. Charles Martel Carloman Pepin the Short Carloman Charlemagne Louis the Pious (778–840)It was a very powerful house of rulers. Carolingians
Rulers What: were a Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the Franks in a region largely corresponding to ancient Gaul from the mid fifth to the mid eighth century. When: Medieval times. Where: Europe. Merovingians
Peasants What: A form of growing crops that gave two sources of food. When: Medieval times. Where: Europe. How: It offered a backup. Why: This was incase some crop didn’t grow well one year. Two field system
: Peasants What: A form of growing crops that gave three sources of food. When: Medieval times. Where: Europe. How: It offered a two backups. Why: This was incase some crop didn’t grow well one year Three field system
between the three surviving sons of Carolingian. peace concluded in 843 at the free imperial city of Verdun between the three surviving sons of the Carolingian emperor Louis I ended a struggle among the brothers for possession of the Frankish empire Treaty of Verdun
Germans. What: Held power in the Roman Province of Gaul. When: 496Where: Roman Province of Gaul. How: Their leader was Clovis. Why: They wanted to bring Christianity to the region Franks
A human being What: One's self needs. When: Throughout time. Where: Wherever humans exist. How: The things a human needs to live. Why: This includes shelter and food Self-sufficiency
Martel led them. Martel defeated Muslim raiders from Spain in this. 732. Where: Europe. How: If the Muslims had won, western Europe might have become part of the Muslim Empire.Why: Charles Martel’s victory at Tours made him a Christian hero. Battle of tours
Farmers of peasants. What: cultivated land that is not seeded for one or more growing seasons When: Medieval AgesWhere: EuropeHow: Done to conserve moisture. Why: undeveloped but potentially useful. Fallow
Pope Urban II launched this holy war to gain control of the Holy Land. Crusades
under papal authority ruled over many daughter houses, church reform Cluny
: During this practice Bishops sold positions in churches. Simony
make changes for improvement in order to remove abuse and injustices, making things better. Reform
members of the Order of Preachers, a Roman Catholic religious order founded in 1214 by Saint Dominic. Dominicans
new kind of architecture that spread through medieval Europe. Germanic tribe named the Goths. Unlike the heavy, gloomy Romanesque buildings, cathedrals thrust upward as if reaching toward heaven. Light streamed in through huge stained glass windows. Gothic
Built between 800 and 1100 these churches had round arches and a heavy roof held up by thick walls and pillars. The thick walls had tiny windows that let in little light Romanesque
The war that Edward III launched for that throne continued on and off from 1337 to 1453 100 years war
Saladin was the most famous Muslim leader of the 1100s. His own people considered him a most devout man. Even the Christians regarded him as honest and brave. Saladin
Pope Urban II made a famous speech to many people at the Council of Clermont. Clermont
an organization of individuals in the same business or occupation working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members. The first guilds were merchant guilds. Guilds
A few remarkable poets created these using vernacular. Inc Dante Alighieri wrote The Divine Comedy Italian. Geoffrey Chaucer wrote Canterbury Tales in English. Christine de Pisan wrote The Book of The City of Ladies (1405) in French. Masterpiece
classification that means upper class such as nobles. Bourgeoise
At a time when serious scholars and writers were writing in Latin, a few remarkable poets began using this. It was the everyday language of their homeland. Vernacular
Dante Alighieri wrote this masterpiece in Italian during 1308-1314. Divine Comedy
The Medieval Church had endorsed this, which became the dominant philosophical. Schlasticism
This was a court held by the Church to suppress heresy. Inquisition
a long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain. Reconquista
Italian pope from 1198 to 1216 who instituted the Fourth Crusade and under whom papal intervention in European politics reached its height Innocent III
someone who is learning a trade from the experts and acts as their helper. Apprentice
competent worker at a skilled craft. The term was first used in medieval times and retains a specific application to certain trades today. Journeyman
a commercial and defensive confederation of free cities in northern Germany and surrounding areas; formed in 1241 and most influential in the 14th century. Hanseatic league
On June 15, 1215, John was forced to write this most celebrated document in English history. This document drawn up by English nobles and reluctantly approved by King John, guaranteed certain basic political rights Magna Carta
October 14, 1066, Normans and Anglo-Saxons fought this battle that changed the course of English history. Battle of Hastings
The split in the Church, caused by the battle to find the true pope, since three were elected. Great western schism
A deadly disease that struck Europe in 1347, the results were • Town populations fell.• Trade declined. Prices rose.• The serfs left the manor in search ofbetter wages. Bubonic plague
a battle in northern France in which English longbowmen under Henry V decisively defeated a much larger French army in 1415 Agincourt
a teenage French peasant girl, felt moved by God to rescue France from its English conquerors. Joan of Arc
In 1204, the crusade to capture Jerusalem failed. The knights did not reach the Holy Land. Instead, they ended up looting the city of Constantinople. In the 1200s, four more Crusades to free the holy land were also unsuccessful. 4th Crusade
cheap, easy to carry, and deadly. It was powerful enough to penetrate armor, thus reducing the impact of mounted cavalry. Bowmen could fire so fast that the it has been called the “machine gun of the Middle Ages.” Longbow/crossbow
the provincial capital of Veneto; built on 118 islands within a lagoon in the Gulf of Venice Venice
movement that started in Italy caused an explosion of creativity in art, writing, and thought that lasted approximately from 1300 to 1600. The term means rebirth, and it refers to a revival of art and learning. spread from northern Italy to Europe. Renaissance
people that are predestined to go to heaven. God is saving these people. The damned are the ones predestined to go to hell. The Elect
an alphabetical list of topics, people, or titles, giving the location of where they are mentioned in a text. It is usually located in the back of a book or the end of a movie. Index
an intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements. Instead of trying to make classical texts agree with Christian teaching as medieval scholars had, humanists studied them to understand ancient Greek values. Humanism
a statesman of Florence who advocated a strong central government (1469-1527), was an Italian diplomat, political philosopher, musician, poet and playwright writer. Machiavelli
in some religious beliefs, the doctrine that God, a deity, or fate has established in advance everything that is going to happen and that nothing can change this. God's decision on who goes to heaven. Predestination
a movement for religious reform. It led to the founding of Christian churches that did not accept the pope’s authority. reformation
an early member of the National-Socialist party, the founder of Lutheranism and leader of the Protestant Reformation. Martin Luther
was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. John Calvin
In Greek this means "no place." In 1516 Thomas More wrote a book called Utopia. The book is about an imaginary land where greed, corruption, and war have been weeded out. In Utopia, because there was little greed, Utopians had little use for money. Utopia
written by Martin Luther in 1517, primary catalyst for Protestant Reformation. Luther used these to display his displeasure with some of the Church's clergy's abuses, most notably the sale of indulgences; this ultimately gave birth to Protestantism. 95 Theses
Located in the Vatican, the private chapel of the popes in Rome; it was built by and named after Sixtus IV in 1473. Sistine Chapel
it was a pardon that released a sinner from performing the penalty that a priest imposed for sins. not supposed to affect God’s right to judge. Tetzel gave people the impression that by buying indulgences, they could buy their way into heaven. Indulgences
having great diversity or a diversity of talents and skills. "Jack of all trades…none" Versatility
the pursuit of personal happiness and independence rather than collective goals or interests. Individualism
a practical understanding and acceptance of the actual nature of the world, rather than an idealized or romantic view of it. Realism
The only legal church in England. Anglicanism
a branch of Christianity. It developed out of the Reformation, the 16th-century protest in Europe against beliefs and practices of the Catholic Church. Protestantism
the desire to achieve political independence, especially by a country under foreign control or by a people with a separate identity and culture but no state of their own. Nationalism
people who are concerned about the physical world and not spirituality. Secular system
a law signed by Henry IV in 1598 and revoked by Louis XIV in 1685 that allowed civil and religious tolerance to French Protestants. Edict of Nantes
During Renaissance these Church leaders beautified Rome by using huge amounts of money to buy art. Renaissance merchants and wealthy by donating art to the city to place in public squares, the wealthy demonstrated their own importance. Patrons of art
Renaissance painters used this technique which shows three dimensions on a flat surface. Perspective
primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church. By its culture it is normative to all Lutheran Churches everywhere and in all times. Augsburg Confessions
these people believe that human freedom and individualism are intrinsic (natural) parts of, or are at least compatible with. Christian humanists
The famous religious settlement that decided that each ruler would determine the religion of his state. Peace of Augsburg
the Spanish fleet that sailed against England under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia in 1588, leading to the Norris-Drake Expedition. Spanish Armada
the movement of reform and regeneration instituted by the Roman Catholic Church in 1545 to counter the increasing strength of Protestantism in Europe as a result of the Reformation. Counter Reformation
a painting on a wall or ceiling done by rapidly brushing watercolors onto fresh damp or partly dry plaster. Fresco
The first granted King Henry VIII of England, this which is still the legal authority of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Royal Supremacy is specifically used to describe the legal sovereignty of the civil laws over the laws of the Church in England. Act of Supremecy
the capital and largest city of Syria. It is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world Damascus
as an Arabic word meaning migration, flight to escape danger, is the migration of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers to the city of Medina in 622 Hijira
Created by: swimgirl