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Chapter 9

Male reproductive system

Bulbourethral glands A pair of exocrine glands near the male urethra. They secrete fluid into the urethra. Also called Cowper glands.
Ejaculation Ejection of sperm and fluid from the male urethra.
Ejaculatory duct Tube through which semen enters the male urethra.
Erectile dysfunction Inability of an adult male to achieve an erection; impotence.
Epididymis (  plural: epididymides) One of a pair of long, tightly coiled tubes on top of each testis. It carries sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the vas deferens.
Flagellum Hair-like projection on a sperm cell that makes it motile (able to move).
Fraternal twins Two infants born of the same pregnancy from two separate egg cells fertilized by two different sperm cells
Glans penis Sensitive tip of the penis.
identical twins Two infants resulting from division of one fertilized egg into two distinct embryos. Conjoined (“Siamese”) twins are incompletely separated identical twins.
parenchyma The essential distinctive cells of an organ. In the testis, the seminiferous tubules that produce sperm are the parenchymal tissues.
penis Male external organ of reproduction.
perineum External region between the anus and scrotum in the male.
prepuce Foreskin; fold of skin covering the tip of the penis.
prostate gland Exocrine gland at the base of the male urinary bladder. The prostate secretes the fluid part of semen into the urethra during ejaculation.
scrotum External sac that contains the testes.
semen Spermatozoa (sperm cells) and seminal fluid (prostatic and seminal vesicle secretions).
seminal vesicles Paired sac-like male exocrine glands that secrete fluid (a major component of semen) into the vas deferens.
seminiferous tubules Narrow, coiled tubules that produce sperm in the testes.
spermatozoon (  plural: spermatozoa) Sperm cell.
sterilization Procedure that removes an individual's ability to produce or release reproductive cells.
stroma Supportive, connective tissue of an organ, as distinguished from its parenchyma.
testis (  plural: testes) Male gonad (testicle) that produces spermatozoa and the hormone testosterone. Remember: testis means one testicle, and testes are two testicles.
testosterone Hormone secreted by the interstitial tissue of the testes; responsible for male sex characteristics.
vas deferens Narrow tube (one on each side) that carries sperm from the epididymis into the body and toward the urethra. Also called ductus deferens.
andr/o male
balan/o penis
cry/o cold
crypt/o hidden
epididym/o epididymis
gon/o seed
hydr/o water and fluid
orch/o, orchi/o, orchid/o testes, testicles
pen/o penis
prostat/o prostate gland
semin/i semen, seed
sperm/o, spermat/o semen, spermatozoa
terat/o monster
test/o testis
varic/o varicose veins
vas/o vessel
zo/o animal life
-genesis formation
-one hormone
-pexy fixation, put in place
-stomy new opening
carcinoma of the testes (testicular cancer) Malignant tumor of the testicles.
cryptorchidism; cryptorchism Undescended testicles.
hydrocele Sac of clear fluid in the scrotum.
testicular torsion Twisting of the spermatic cord
varicocele Enlarged, dilated veins near the testicle.
benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) Benign growth of cells within the prostate gland.
carcinoma of the prostate (prostate cancer) Malignant tumor of the prostate gland.
hypospadias; hypospadia Congenital abnormality in which the male urethral opening is on the undersurface of the penis, instead of at its tip.
phimosis Narrowing (stricture) of the opening of the prepuce over the glans penis.
chlamydial infection Bacterial invasion (by Chlamydia trachomatis) of the urethra and reproductive tract.
gonorrhea Inflammation of the genital tract mucosa, caused by infection with gonococci (berry-shaped bacteria).
herpes genitalis Infection of skin and genital mucosa, caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV).
human papillomavirus (HPV) infection Infection of the skin and mucous membranes in the anogenital region by the human papillomavirus.
syphilis Chronic STD caused by a spirochete (spiral-shaped bacterium).
PSA test Measurement of levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the blood.
semen analysis Microscopic examination of ejaculated fluid.
castration Surgical excision of testicles or ovaries.
circumcision Surgical procedure to remove the prepuce of the penis.
digital rectal examination (DRE) Finger palpation through the anal canal and rectum to examine the prostate gland.
photoselective vaporization of the prostate (GreenLight PVP) Removal of tissue to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) using a green light laser (laser TURP).
transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) Excision of benign prostatic hyperplasia using a resectoscope through the urethra.
vasectomy bilateral surgical removal of a part of the vas deferens.
BPH benign prostatic hyperplasia (also called benign prostatic hypertrophy)
DRE digital rectal examination
ED erectile dysfunction
GU genitourinary
HPV human papillomavirus
HSV herpes simplex virus
NSU nonspecific urethritis (not due to gonorrhea or chlamydial infection)
PID pelvic inflammatory disease
PIN prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia; a precursor of prostate cancer
PSA prostate-specific antigen
PVP photo selective vaporization of the prostate; Green Light PVP
RPR rapid plasma reagin [test]; a test for syphilis
STD sexually transmitted disease
STI sexually transmitted infection
transrectal ultrasound [examination]; test to assess the prostate and guide precise placement of a biopsy needle transrectal ultrasound [examination]; test to assess the prostate and guide precise placement of a biopsy needle
TUIP transurethral incision of the prostate; successful in less enlarged prostates and less invasive than TURP
TUMT transurethral microwave thermotherapy
TUNA transurethral needle ablation; radiofrequency energy destroys prostate tissue
TURP transurethral resection of the prostate