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Chapter 10

Nervous system: combining forms, prefixes, suffixes, pathology

Alges/o Excessive sensitivity to pain
Angi/o Blood vessel
Caus/o Burning
cephal/o Head
Cerebell/o Cerebellum
Cerebr/o Cerebrum
Comat/o Deep Sleep (Coma)
Crani/o Skull
Cry/o Cold
Dur/o Dura Matter
Encephal/o Brain
Esthesi/o Feeling, Nervous sensation
Gli/o Glue, parts of the nervous system that support and connect
Hydr/o Water, Fluid
Kines/o Movement
Lept/o Thin, slender
Lex/o Word or phrase
Mening/o, Meningi/o Membranes, Meninges
My/o Muscle
Myel/o Bone marrow, Spinal Cord
Narc/o Numbness; Stupor; Sleep
Neur/o Nerve
Pont/o Pons
Radicul/o Nerve root
Spin/o Spine (back bone)
Syncop/o To cut off; Cut short
Tax/o Order; Coordination
Thalam/o Thalamus
Thec/o Sheath (Refers to the meninges)
Troph/o Nourishment; Development
Vag/o Vagus nerve ( 10th cranial nerve)
a-, an- No, Not or without
Dys/o Painful; Abnormal
epi- Above, Upon; On
hemi- Half
hyper- Above; Excessive
hypo- Below; Deficient
intra- Within; Into
micro- Small
para- Abnormal; Near
polio- Grey matter ( of brain or spinal cord)
poly- Many; Much
Quadri- Four
Sub- Under; Below
-algesia Sensitivity to pain
-algia Pain
-blast Embryonic; Immature
-cele Hernia
-esthesia Nervous sensation
-gram Record
-graphy Process of recording
-ine Pertaining to
-itis Inflammation
-kinesia, -kinesis Movement
-kinetic Pertaining to movement
-lepsy Seizure
-oma Tumor; Mass; Collection
-ose Full of; Pertaining to
-paresis Slight paralysis ( weakness)
-pathy Disease; Condition
-phagia eating, swallowing
-plegia Paralysis ( loss or impairment of the ability to move parts of the body)
-praxia Action
-ptosis Drooping; Sag; Prolapse
-sclerosis Hardening
-sthenia Strength
-tomy Incision or Process of cutting
-trophy Nourishment; Development
Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse Dendrite
Largest part of the brain Cerebrum
The outer most layer of the meninges Dura Mater
Covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell Myelin sheath
A type of neuroglial cell that transports water and salts from capillaries Astrocyte
Canals in the brain that contain Cerebrospinal fluid Ventricles
The part of the brain that controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and the secretions from the pituitary glands Hypothalamus
Chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell Neurotransmitter
Part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements and maintaining balance Cerebellum
Space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cell or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells Synapse
Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell Axon
Posterior portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord Brainstem
Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord Cauda Equina
Collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system Ganglion
Part of the brain, just above the spinal cord that controls breathing, heartbeat, and size of blood vessels Medulla Oblongata
Main relay center of the brain Thalamus
Sheet of nerve cells that forms a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex Gyrus
Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex Sulcus
Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord Meninges
Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges Pia mater
The combining form that means brain Encephal/o
The combining form that means spinal cord Myel/o
The combining form that means nerve Neur/o
The combining form that means nerve root Radicul/o
The combining form that means burning Caus/o
The combining form that means feeling Esthesi/o
The combining form that means word or phrase Lex/o
The suffix that means strength -sthenia
The suffix that means pain -algia
The suffix that means seizure -lepsy
A subdural hematoma means a collection of blood under (sub-) the ___(dur/o) Dura Mater
Encephalitis is inflammation (-itis) of the ____ (encephal/o) Brain
Poliomyelitis is inflammation (-itis) of the grey matter (polio-) of the ____ (myel/o) Spinal Cord
Neuropathy is disease (-pathy) of _____ (neur/o) Nerves
Radiculitis is inflammation (-itis) of the ______ (radicul/o) Nerve roots
Neuralgia is _____ (-algia) of the nerves (neur/o) Pain
Bradykinesia is slowness (brady-) of ______ (-kinesia) Movement
Hemiparesis is ______ (-paresis) in either the right or left half (hemi-) of the body Weakness
Ataxia is a condition of no (a-) muscular ______ (tax/o) Coordination
Quadriplegia is _______ (-plegia) of all four (quadri-) limbs of the body Paralysis
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain Hydrocephalus
Congenital defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts Spina bifida
Brain disorder marked by gradual and progressive dementia, personality changes, and impairment of daily functioning AD (Alzheimer disease)
Degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain stem ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)
Chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizure activity Epilepsy
Destruction of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS and its replacement by plaques of sclerotic tissue MS (Multiple Sclerosis)
Autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles MG (Myasthenia Gravis)
Disease of involuntary, spasmodic, twitching movements, uncontrollable vocal sounds, and inappropriate words Tourette syndrome
Bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head Cerebral contusion
Disruption in the normal blood supply to the brain; stroke CVA (Cerebral Vascular attack)
X-ray imaging of the arterial blood vessels in the brain after injection of contrast material Cerebral Angiography
A method of treatment for myasthenia gravis Thymectomy
Radioactive glucose is injected and then detected in the brain to image the metabolic activity of cells PET scan (Positron Emission Tomography)
Recording of the electrical Activity of the brain EEG (Electroencephalogram)
Samples of CSF are examined Cerebrospinal fluid analysis
X- ray technique that generates multiple computerized images of the brain and spinal cord CT scan (Computerized Tomography)
Magnetic field and pulses of radiowave energy are used to create images of the brain and spinal cord MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Use of soundwave to detect blood flow in the carotid and intracranial arteries Doppler Ultrasound Studies
CSF is withdrawn from between two lumbar vertebrae for analysis Lumbar Puncture
Use of a specialized instrument to locate and treat targets in the brain Stereotactic Radiosurgery
AD Alzheimer Disease
ALS Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
MS Multiple Sclerosis
MG Myasthenia Gravis
CVA Cerebral Vascular Attack
CNS Central Nervous System
CSF Cerebral Spinal Fluid
EEG Electroencephalogram
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging
ACE Types of neurons: Afferent, Connecting, Efferent
Afferent Neurons Sensory neurons; emerge from sensory organs and the skin to carry the impulses from the sensory organs toward the brain and spinal cord
Anesthesia The absence of normal sensation, especially sensitivity to pain, that is induced by the administration of an anesthetic
Aphasia The loss of the ability to speak, write, and/or comprehend the written or spoken word
Arachnoid Membrane The second layer of the meninges and is located between the dura mater and the pia mater.
Autonomic nervous system controls the involuntary actions of the body
Axon A process that extends away from the cell body and conducts impulses away from the nerve cell
Bell's palsy Temporary paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve that causes drooping only on the affected side of the face
Brainstem The stalk-like portion of the brain that connects the cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord; made up of three parts: the midbrain, pons, and medulla
Causalgia Persistent, severe burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve
Cephalalgia Pain in the head; Also known as headache
Cerebellum The second largest part of the brain, located at the back of the head below the posterior portion of the cerebrum
Cerebral Pertaining to the cerebrum
Cerebral hemispheres The cerebrum is divided into these two parts
Cerebrum The largest and uppermost portion of the brain, consisting of four lobes.
Cervical radiculopathy Nerve pain caused by pressure on the spinal nerve roots in the neck region
Cognition The mental activities associated with thinking, learning, and memory
Coma A deep state of unconsciousness
Concussion A violent shaking up or jarring of the brain that may result in ttemporary loss of awareness and function
Connecting neurons Associative neurons which link sensory and motor neurons
Cranial Hematoma A collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the brain
Cranial nerves 12 pairs of nerves that originate from the undersurface of the brain
Dementia A slowly progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking, and judgement.
Dendrites The root-like processes that receive impulses and conduct them to the cell body
Descending nerve tracts Carry nerve impulses away from the brain
Dura Mater The thick, tough, outermost membrane of the meninges
Dyslexia A learning disability characterized by substandard reading achievement due to the inability of the brain to process symbols; also known as a development reading disorder
Efferent neurons Motor neurons that carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord and toward the muscles and glands.
Encephalocele A congenital herniation of brain tissue through a gap in the skull
Epidural Anesthesia Regional Anesthesia produced by injecting a local anesthetic into the epidural space of the lumbar or sacral region of the spine
Ganglion A nerve center made up of a cluster of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system
Glial cells Provide support and protection for neurons
Hemorrhagic stroke Occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks or ruptures; also known as a bleed
Hypothalamus (below the thalamus) contains neurons that control body temperature, sleep, appetite, sexual desire, and emotions such as fear and pleasure
Ischemic stroke A type of stroke that occurs when the flow of blood to the brain is blocked
Lobectomy Surgical removal of a portion of the brain to treat brain cancer or seizure disorders that cant be controlled with medication
Lumbar puncture The process of obtaining a sample of CSF by inserting a needle into the subarachnoid space of the lumbar region to withdraw fluid
Lumbar radiculopathy Nerve pain in the lower back caused by muscle spasms or by the nerve root irritation from the compression of vertebral disks such as a herniated disk.
Medulla Located at the lowest part of the brainstem, connected to the spinal cord
Meninges The system of membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord of the CNS
Meningitis An inflammation of the meninges of the brain or spinal cord
Meningocele The congenital herniation of the meninges that surround the brain or spinal cord through a defect in the skull or spinal column
Midbrain and pons provides conduction pathways to and from the higher and lower centers in the brain
Myelin sheath The protective covering made up of glial cells
Myelitis An inflammation of the spinal cord; also inflammation of bone marrow
Narcolepsy A sleep disorder consisting of recurring episodes of falling asleep during the day
Nerve One or more bundles of neurons that connect the brain and the spinal cord with other parts of the body
Neurons The basic cells of the nervous system that allow different parts of the body to communicate with eachother
Neuroplasty The surgical repair of a nerve or nerves
Neurorraphy Surgically suturing together the ends of a severed nerve
Neurotransmitter Chemical substances that make it possible for messages to cross from the synapse of a neuron to the target receptor (Acetylcholine, dopamine, endorphins, norepinephrine, serotonin)
Parasympathetic nervous system Returns the body to normal after a response to stress
Paresthesia refers to a burning or prickling sensation
PD Parkinson's disease- A chronic degenerative central nervous disorder in which there is a progressive loss of control over movement, resulting in tremors and a shuffling gait
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes the 12 pairs of cranial nerves extending from the brain and the 31 pairs of peripheral spinal nerves extending outward from the spinal cord
Pia mater The third layer of the meninges, located nearest to the brain and spinal cord (Delicate)
Plexus A network of intersecting spinal nerves
Poliomyelitis A highly contagious viral disease; also known as Polio
Radiculitis an inflammation of the root of a spinal nerve that causes pain and numbness radiating down the affected limb; also known as a pinched nerve
Receptors Sites in the sensory organs that receive external stimulation
SAM Neuron functions: Sensory neurons (afferent) Associative neurons (connecting) Motor neurons (Efferent)
Stimulus anything that excites a nerve and causes an impulse
Sympathetic nervous system Prepares the body for emergencies and stress by increasing heart rate , breathing rate and blood flow to muscles
Synapse The space between two neurons or between a neuron and a receptor organ
Syncope Fainting
Terminal end fibers the branching of fibers at the end of the axon that lead the nervous impulse from the axon to the synapse
Thalamotomy A surgical incision into the thalamus
Thalamus Located below the cerebrum, produces sensations by relaying impulses to and from the cerebrum and the sense organs of the body
TIA Transient ischemic attack- the temporary interruption in the blood supply of the brain
Acetycholine chemical that influences muscle action
Dopamine Released within the brain, involved in mood and thought disorders and in abnormal movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease
Endorphins Naturally occurring substances that are produced by the brain to help relieve pain.
Norepinephrine responds to hypotension and physical stress
Seratonin has roles in sleep, hunger, and pleasure recognition
White matter Portion of the nerve fibers that are myelinated
Gray matter Portion of the nerve fiber that is unmyelinated
epidural space inner surface of the vertebral column
subdural space located between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane
subarachnoid space located between the arachnoid membrane and above the pia mater, contains CSF
cerebral cortex deep folds known as fissures
frontal lobe controls skilled motor functions, memory , and behaviour
parietal lobe receives and interprets nerve impulses from the sensory receptors in the tongue skin and muscles
occipital lobe controls eyesight
temporal lobe hearing, smell, ability to create, store, and access new information
absence seizure Minor (petit mal) form of seizure, consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness of surroundings.
aneurysm Enlarged, weakened area in an arterial wall, which may rupture, leading to hemorrhage and CVA (stroke).
aura Peculiar symptom or sensation occurring before the onset (prodromal) of an attack of migraine or an epileptic seizure.
embolus Clot of material that travels through the bloodstream and suddenly blocks a vessel.
gait Manner of walking.
occlusion Blockage.
palliative Relieving symptoms but not curing them.
AFP alpha-fetoprotein; elevated levels in amniotic fluid and maternal blood are associated with congenital malformations of the nervous system, such as anencephaly and spina bifida
ICP intracranial pressure (normal pressure is 5 to 15 mm Hg)
PCA patient controlled anesthesia
Sz seizure
tPA tissue plasminogen activator; a clot-dissolving drug used as therapy for stroke