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Blood, Lymph & Immune Systems Review

Describe platelets -thrombocytes -smallest formed elements found in the blood -not true cells; fragments of cells -initiate blood clotting -hemostasis
Describe red blood cells -shaped like a biconcave disks -transports O2 and CO2 -most numerous circulating blood cells -during erythropoiesis they decrease in size -develop Hb/Hgb (gives them their red colour) -Hb/Hgb carries O2 to body tissues and exchanges it for CO2
Describe the spleen -acts as a filter -resembles a lymph node -destroys old RBCs -stores healthy blood cells
Describe the thymus -responsible for cellular immunity -transforms lymphocytes into T cells -located in the mediastinum
Describe the tonsils -masses of lymphatic tissue (palatine) located in the pharynx -acts as a filter -protect upper respiratory structures
Describe white blood cells -protect body from pathogens -remove debris from injured tissue -aid in healing process -diapedesis -phagocytic -initiate inflammation and immune response -granulocytes (granules) agranulocyte (without granule) -migrate through capillaries & venules
List autoimmune diseases -AIDS -Allergies -Myasthenia Gravis -Rheumatoid Arthritis -Thrombocytopenia -Vasculitis -Systemic lupus erthematosus
What is the function of histamines? -initiate the inflammatory process by increasing blood flow
What are the two ducts of the lymph system? -right lymphatic duct -thoracic duct
What are the four types of T cells? -cytotoxic -helper -suppressor -memory
What are the functions of the lymph system? -maintain fluid balance -transport lipids away from the GI system -filter and remove unwanted infectious products
What is an allergy? -acquired abnormal immune response
What is hemotology? -the study of blood cells, blood-clotting mechanisms, bone marrow and lymph nodes
What is heparin? -acts to prevent blood from clotting at the injury site
Where do blood cells develop from? -stem cells
edema abnormal accumulation of fluids in the intercellular spaces of the body
hemosiderosis abnormal increase of iron in the blood
leukocytosis abnormal increase of white cells
lymphadenopathy any disease of the lymph nodes
antiserum blood serum that contains antibodies
megakaryocyte cell with a large nucleus; fragments become platelets
pernicious anemia chronic, progressive anemia due to lack of sufficient vitamin B12
phagocytosis condition of ingesting cells
leukopenia decrease in white blood cells
thrombolysis destruction of a clot
hemolytic anemia destruction of RBCs, commonly resulting in jaundice
dyspnea difficulty breathing
adenopathy disease of a gland
vertigo dizziness
splenomegaly enlargement of the spleen
thymectomy excision of the thymus gland
autoimmune disease failure to the body to accurately distinguish between what is "self" and what is "non-self"
hematopoiesis formation of blood cells and platelets in bone marrow
reticulocyte immature RBC
folic-acid deficiency anemia inability to produce sufficient RBCs
transfusion infusion of blood or blood products from one person to another
sickle cell anemia inherited anemia that causes RBCs to become crescent or sick-shaped
iron-deficiency anemia lack of sufficient iron in RBCs
monocyte leukocyte that is phagocytic
eosinophil leukocyte that protects by releasing toxins to destroy harmful invaders
basophil leukocyte that releases histamines and heparin
hematoma localized accumulation of blood
phlebotomy obtaining blood for testing purposes
erythrocyte mature red blood cell
immunologist one who specializes in the study of protection
hypochromic pertaining to decrease of colour
hemoglobin plasma protein; carries O2 to body tissues
thrombocyte platelet; initiates blood clotting
sepsis presence of bacteria or their toxins in the blood; also called septicemia or blood poisoning
antibody protects against antigens
lymphocytes provides protection from bacteria by producing antibodies
erythema redness of the skin
anemia reduction in the number of circulating red blood cells
myeloid resembling bone marrow
aplastic anemia serious form of anemia associated with bone marrow failure
antigen substance recognized as harmful to the host
blood culture test to determine the presence of pathogens in the bloodstream
plasma the liquid portion of blood
neutophil the most numerous WBC
morphology the study of shape
viscous thick, sticky
lymphoma tumor of lymph tissue
granulocyte type of WBC containing granules; formed in the red bone marrow
agranulocyte type of white blood cell without granules
leukocyte white blood cell
AB, Ab, ab antibody, abortion
A, B, AB, O blood types in ABO blood group
AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome
ALL acute lymphocytic leukemia
AML acute myelogenous leukemia
ANA antinuclear antibody
APC antigen-presenting cell
APTT activated partial thromboplastin time
BMT bone marrow transplant
CBC complete blood count
CLL chronic lymphocytic leukemia
CML chronic myelogenous leukemia
DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation
diff differential count
DVT deep vein thrombosis
EBV Epstein-Barr virus
GVHD graft-versus-host disease
eos eosinophil
Hb, Hgb hemoglobin
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
Igs immunoglobulins
MNL mononuclear leukocytes
NK cell natural killer cell
PCP pneumocystis pneumonia
PMNL, poly polymorphonuclear leukocyte
PMN polymorphonuclear
PT prothrombin time
PTT partial thromboplastin time
RA rheumatoid arthritis
RBC, rbc red blood cells
segs segmented neutrophils
SLE systemic lupus erythematosus
WBC, wbc white blood cells
Created by: JessP