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infection control review

What does mode of transmission mean? An organism needs transportation to a new host.
Direct contact person to person
indirect contact person to person to object
droplet transmission coughs, sneezes
vehicle route food, water, blood, and body fluids
airborne transmission dust, evaporated droplets, hair, skin, ventilation systems
vector transmission bird, animal, insect example: West Nile Virus
normal flora -normally present in the body -do not cause disease
bacteria -single-celled -multiply by cell devision -nonpathogenic -some cause infections
viruses -small -need host cell to multiply -cannot live on their own
fungi -single-celled -use spores to reproduce
protozoa -single-celled -found mostly in contaminated water and sewage systems
How should you treat someone with HIV/AIDS? respect, warmth, empathy, acceptance
What are standard precautions? procedures that will protect both health professionals and clients from cross-contamination
What are the contraindications for MMR? -pregnancy -sensitivity to eggs or neomycin -immunoglobulin
What is pathogen? a disease causing microorganism
What is chemical disinfection used for? heat sensitive equipment
What is medical asepsis? killing of germs after they leave the body
What is surgical asepsis? -known as sterilization -to destroy all pathogens before they enter the body
What is the most effective method of preventing the spread of infectious organisms? hand washing
Why do vaccines work? the body responds in the same manner to an antigen whether it is exposed to it naturally or via a vaccine
What does the chain of infection mean? if one of the chain links break it cannot continue
How can AIDs be transmitted? -unprotected sexual intercourse -shared needles or other drug equipment -tattooing, skin piercing, acupuncture/contaminated equipment -injury from a needle or sharp instrument contaminated by blood
What is the "universal disinfectant"? bleach
What is postexposure prophylaxis? treatment after exposure to a pathogen
autoclave a device using steam for steriliazation
antigen a pathogen or any other substance that induces an antibody response
antibody a protein specific to a certain antigen that weakens or destroys pathogens
nosocomial infection a hospital-related infection; one that is not present or incubating when a patient is admitted to a hospital or a healthcare facility
systemic infection an infection that has spread to more than one region of the body
sharp any instrument with a sharp edge or point, such as a scalpel, scissors, or a needle
topical applied to the skin or affected area
anaerobic bacteria bacteria that do not require oxygen to grow
aerobic bacteria bacteria that require oxygen to grow
teratogenic causing abnormalities in the fetus
antiseptic a cleansing agent applied to living tissue to destroy pathogens
latent infection one in which the symptoms disappear and recur, while the disease-causing agent remains in the body
sterile completely free of pathogens
sterilant a substance that destroys or eliminates all forms of microbial life in an inanimate environment
disinfectant a chemical substance that destroys or eliminates specific species of infectious microorganisms. It is not usually effective against bacterial spores
infection a disease process that results from the entry and spread of a microorganism
contagious (or) communicable disease a disease that is spread from person to person
immunity an individual's ability to fight off disease
active infection an infection in which signs and symptoms are present
otitis media infection of the middle ear
acute infection an infection that is time limited
quarantine isolating or separating a client, client-care unit, or facility
bactericidal killing microorganisms
local infection an infection that is confined to a specific region of the body
sanitization removal of gross contaminants and some microorganisms from instruments, skin, and so on; the lowest level of medical hygiene
sterile techniques methods to avoid contamination of sterile materials
pathogen a microorganism that causes disease
disinfection a more thorough removal of contaminants than sanitization but less thorough than steriliazation
nonpathogenic not causing disease
opportunistic infection an infection that does not ordinarily cause disease but does so under certain circumstances, for example, in compromised immune systems; so called because it takes advantages of an "opportunity"
microorganism an organism so small that it can only be seen under a microscope
remission a period in which a chronic infection shows no symptoms
exacerbation a period in which a chronic infection shows symptoms
chronic infection one that is persistent over a long period of time, perhaps life
sanitizer a substance that significantly reduces the bacterial population in an inanimate environment but does not destroy all bacteria or other microorganisms
bacteriostatic reducing or inhibiting the number of microorganisms
relapse the re-emergence of an initial infection after it appears to have subsided but has not been cured
recurrent infection a distinct episode of an infection after recovery from the initial infection; may involve the same pathogens or different ones
immunoglobulin a serum that contains antibodies that can help protect an exposed person from contaminating the disease
asepsis a state in which pathogens are absent or reduced. There are two principal types of asepsis: medical and surgical
sterilization the process of destroying all microorganisms, including bacterial endospores and viruses. This is the highest level of cleanliness
virulence the power of a microbe to produce a disease in a particular host
contamination the presence of pathogens on an object
post-exposure prophylaxis treatment after exposure to a pathogen
asymptomatic without clinical signs or symptoms
Created by: JessP