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History of F.S. Q3

Glossary Terms

any object made by human hands artifact
Roman word for soul or life-force anima
the jackal-headed Egyptian god of embalming Anubis
the Egyptian "soul" or spiritual counterpart of the body; could leave the tomb but had to return at night Ba
a powerful organization of medieval healthcare professionals who sought a monopoly on the right to embalm Barber-Surgeons
the Egyptian collection of magical texts designed to protect the deceased in the afterlife Book of the Dead
containers in which the mummified viscera of an Egyptian were entombed canopic jars
long underground tunnels used by the pagan Romans for burial and by the early Christians for burial and for worship during times of persecution catacombs
three-headed, wild dog who guarded the way to Hades Ceberus
burial ground (from the Greek "sleeping place") cemeterium
a waxed linen sheet used as a shroud cere cloth
a building holding the exhumed bones of bodies previously buried Charnel House
the boatman who ferried souls to Hades - for a price Charon
a wall-like structure with niches provided for the entombment of cremains (from the Latin dove-cote) columbarium
in Roman funeral practice, hired female mourners Conclamantes mortis
Roman assistant to the libitudinarius designator
form of Greek religion; members believed in a happy immortality Cult of Dionysus
the Greek term for paradise Elysian Fields
a Greek & Roman school of philosophy whose members believed that both the soul and the body disintegrated after death Epicurians
torchbearers in a Roman funeral procession funerales
Roman term for a torch-lit procession, from which comes our word "funeral" funeralis
Roman term for funeral rites funus
artifacts buried with the deceased: clothing, jewelry, weapons, pottery, etc grave goods
the Greek concept of the Underworld where souls lived a weak, shadowy existence; also the god who ruled there Hades
Egyptian god of the river Nile Hapi
the study of past events and cultures and their influence on present conditions, usually through the uses of written records history
the study of past funeral beliefs and practices and their influences on funeral beliefs and practices today history of funeral service
Egyptian "rock-cut" tombs cut directly into or under cliffs (from the Greek "under the earth) hypogea
the Egyptian vital life force which generally resided in a ka-statue after death Ka
the Egyptian priest who took charge of the body and supervised the embalming Kher-heb
round columns used in Greece to commemorate the dead kiones
Greek word for "basket" from which comes the English word "coffin" kofinos
Roman protector-goddess of human remains and funerals Libitina
Roman head undertaker and direct ancestor of today's professional funeral director Libitudinarius
ancient Egyptian concept of justice and "the way things ought to be" Maat
a kind of Egyptian tomb, rectangular in shape with sloping sides and a flat roof, covering a shaft leading to an underground burial chamber mastaba
Greek tombs built to look like miniature temples naidia
mixture of naturally-occuring salts used by the Egyptians to dehydrate bodies during the mummification process natron
term used by archeologists for ancient cemeteries, especially Egyptian (from Greek "city of the dead") necropolis
the Greek coin placed in the mouth of the deceased to pay Charon obol
ancient Egyptian judge of the dead Osiris
the complex of beliefs about the life and legend of Osiris which provided the religious justification for many of the funeral practices of the ancient Egyptians Cult of Osiris
a container for bones ossuary
in ancient Rome, a low-status employee or slave who performed whatever primitive embalming may have been done pollinctor
in ancient Rome, the person who announced aloud on the streets the death of an individual and/or the approach of the funeral procession praeco
Egyptian god of the sun Ra
in early Christian practice, a religious service held for the repose of the soul of the deceased, often with the body present Requiem Mass
a carved stone outer container protecting a coffin and the mummy within (from Greek "flesh eater") sarcophagus
direct ancestor of today's concrete burial vault (from Greek "flesh eater") sarcophagus
a kind of Egyptian tomb consisting of a row of small, square tomb chambers surrounding an open courtyard saff tomb
a free-standing tomb structure (from Latin "sepelire," to cover the body) sepulcher
medieval Church official in charge of the physical upkeep of the church building and the churchyard and who assumed some of the undertaker's duties sexton
in ancient Hebrew belief, the abode of the dead sheol
tall, rectangular stone shafts decorated with inscriptions and bas-reliefs and used as grave markers in ancient Greece stelae
one of the river boundaries of Hades, the Greek abode of the dead Styx
a law that limits the amount of money that can be spent on a funeral or on items considered to be luxuries sumptuary law
the ancient Greek version of Hell Tartarus
square-cut ancient Greek tombs trapezae
small statues of servants entombed with Egyptian mummies ushabtis
in Scandinavian (Viking) belief, he abode of the dead who died bravely in battle or after a successful life as a warrior valhol/valhalla
the Egyptian place of embalming; direct ancestor of the preparation room wabt
in Egyptian belief, that part of the person which upon death became part of the starry constellations of the night sky and, therefore, part of the universe yakhu (akhu)
Created by: leahmurphy