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Cardiovascular Review

Describe capillaries. Join arterial system with venous system. Most significant of blood vessels. Provide cells with vital products. Remove waste products from cells.
Describe the heart. Hollow, muscular organ lying in the mediastinum that propels blood to entire body.
Describe the SA (sinoatrial) node Located in upper portion of right atrium. Has built-in rhythm. Initiates and transmits each heart beat. Sets basic pace for cardiac rate.
How do veins return blood to the heart? skeletal muscle contraction. gravity. respiratory activity. valves.
How is blood supplied to the heart muscle? coronary arteries
Name the factors that influence blood pressure. resistance of blood flow. pumping action of heart. viscosity of blood. elasticity of arteries. quantity of blood.
Name the four structures responsible for electrical conduction of the heart. SA node AV node bundle of His Purkinje fibers
Name the three layers of the heart. Endocardium Myocardium Epicardium
What are the three layers of artery walls? tunica externa tunica media tunica intima
What are the three major types of blood vessels? arteries capillaries veins
What are valves? Small structures within veins that prevent backflow of blood.
What is endocarditis? Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart and its valves.
What type of blood do arteries carry? oxygenated
What type of blood do veins carry? deoxygenated
Where is each heart valve located? Tricuspid- right ventricle and right atrium Pulmonic- pulmonary arteries and right ventricle Bicuspid (aka) Mitral- left atrium and left ventricle Aortic- aorta and left ventricle
angioplasty any endovascular procedure that reopens narrowed blood vessels
cardioversion applying controlled electrical shock to the exterior of the chest
deep vein thrombosis blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body
thrombosis blood clot that obstructs a vessel
bicuspid valve blood passed from the left atrium to the left ventricle; aka mitral valve
pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood back to the heart from the lungs
beta-blockers causes a decrease of heart rate and contractility
inferior vena cava collects and carries deoxygenated blood from the lower portion to the right atrium
superior vena cava collects and carries deoxygenated blood from the top portion to the right atrium
varicose veins condition which develops when the valves of the veins are damaged
hypertension consistently elevated blood pressure
hypotension decreased blood pressure
thrombolysis destruction of a blood clot
catheter ablation destruction of conductive tissue of the heart
necrosis destruction of tissue (death)
stent device used to hold open vessels
nitrates dilate blood vessels of the heart
holter monitor test ECG recording system capable of storing 24 to 48 hours of tracings
pericardium fibrous sac which encloses the heart
atherosclerosis form of arteriosclerosis characterized by deposits of plaque in arteries
arteriosclerosis hardening and narrowing of an artery
arrhythmia inability of the heart to maintain a normal sinus rhythm
insufficiency inability of the valves to close properly
valvotomy incision of a valve to increase the size of the opening
diuretics increase excretion of water and sodium
phlebitis inflammation of a vein
endocardium innermost layer of the heart
angina intermittent chest pain
myocardial infarction life-threatening condition characterized by necrosis in the myocardium
ischemia local and temporary deficiency of blood supply
aneurysm localized abnormal dilation of a blood vessel
tricuspid valve located between the right atrium and right ventricle
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors lowers blood pressure
statins lowers cholesterol
embolism mass lodged in a blood vessel
myocardium muscular layer of the heart
coarctation narrowing of a vessel
infarction necrosis of tissue following cessation of blood supply
epicardium outermost layer of the heart
cardiac catheterization passage of a catheter into the heart
pulmonic valve prevents backflow of blood into the right ventricle
laser ablation procedure used to remove or treat varicose veins
palpitation sensation that the heart is not beating normally
lipid panel series of tests used to assess risk of ischemic heart disease
bruit soft blowing sound heard on ausculation
systole the contraction phase of the heart
diastole the relaxation phase of the heart
Doppler u/s ultrasound that assesses different areas of the heart
echocardiography ultrasound used to visualize internal cardiac structures
AAA abdominal aortic aneurysm
ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme
AF atrial fibrillation
BBB bundle branch block
CABG coronary artery bypass graft
CC cardiac catherterization
CCU coronary care unit
CHD coronary heart disease
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CV cardiovascular
DOE dyspnea on exertion
DVT deep vein thrombosis
ECG electrocardiogram
ECHO echocardiogram
EF ejection fraction
HF heart failure
HTN hypertension
IV intravenous
LA left atrium
LV left ventricle
MRA magnetic resonance angiography
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MVP mitral valve prolapse
PAC premature atrial contraction
PVC premature ventricular contraction
SA sinoatrial
SOB shortness of breath
VT ventricular tachycardia
Created by: JessP