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BJU PhysicalSci 10

BJU Physical Science - Ch 10

The unit used to measure the amount of current that flows past a point in one second. ampere
A modern charge-storage device used in electrical and electronic circuits, consisting of two or more conductive plates or sheets separated by an insulator. capacitor
A hollow, vacuum-filled and sealed glass device containing electrical plates with opposite charges at high voltages. A stream of electrons passes from the negative plate to the positive plate. cathode-ray tube
A reusable overcurrent protection device that opens a switch when current exceeds a certain value. It can be reset after the fault is corrected. circuit breaker
The SI unit of electrical charge. coulomb
A continuous flow of electrical charges. electrical current
A device that detects electrical charges. electroscope
A one-time-use overcurrent protection device that breaks a circuit when its conductor strip melts due to the current becoming too high. It must be replaced to restore the circuit after the fault is corrected. fuse
Charging an object by shifting the paths of its electrons. electrical induction
The unit of electrical energy used by utilities to sell electricity. kilowatt-hour
Like charges repel; unlike charges attract. law of charges
The resistive devices in an electrical circuit. electrical load
The SI unit used to measure electrical resistance. ohms
An electrical circuit or portion of a circuit with multiple parallel paths so that the current must split up to flow through each load in the circuit. parallel circuit
An electrical circuit component whose specific purpose is to impede current flow or to create a potential difference between two points in the circuit. resistor
A material that allows limited electron flow, so it can act as either a conductor or an insulator depending on the circumstances. Semiconductors
A circuit with a single path for all the electrons in it to follow. series circuit
A location (usually a fault) in an electrical circuit where current bypasses a circuit’s load to take a low-resistance path back to the current’s source. short circuit
All electrical phenomena relating to stationary electrical charges and the forces they exert. static electricity
A device that can be used to break (open or close) a circuit. switch
The amount of work required to move a unit charge between two points in a circuit or field; the SI derived unit for potential difference; 1 equals 1 J/C. volt
The SI units of power; 1 joule of energy per second. watt
A material through which heat and electricity easily flow. Good conductors are usually materials that contain mobile electrons, such as most metals. electrical conductor
The field force exerted by electrical charges. It may be repulsive or attractive depending on the kinds of charges interacting. electrostatic force
Imaginary lines used to model electric and magnetic fields. Their density and direction represent the strength and direction of the field force. line of force
The creation of a charged region on a neutral object when exposed to a nearby electrical charge. electrical induction
An object or particle with two electrical or magnetic poles of opposite nature. dipole
A material that does not easily conduct thermal energy or electricity. Insulators are poor conductors with tightly bound valence electrons. Electrical insulator
The loss of static charge on an object as the surroundings supply or absorb charges to restore a neutral condition on the object. electrical discharge
A metal rod attached to the highest point of a building that is designed to conduct a lightning discharge safely through cables to the ground, thus protecting the building from damage. lightning rod
An early charge-storage device that consisted of a jar lined and coated with lead and used electrical induction and grounding to greatly increase its storage capacity. Leyden jar
The energy or work that can be done by charges moving between two points of different voltages. electrical potential energy
The flow of positive charges through a conductor or electrolytic solution. This flow is opposite to the flow of electrons in a wire. conventional current
Electrical current that flows in only one direction. direct current
A complete path for an electrical current. It includes a current source, such as a battery or a generator; a conductor; an electrical load; and a point at which the current returns to the current source. electrical circuit
Any device that purposely converts electrical energy to another form of energy in an electrical circuit. electrical load
A source of electrical potential consisting of one or more voltaic cells (electrochemical cells) connected in series. battery
A device that creates an electrical potential by either releasing or absorbing electrons or both through chemical reaction(s). electrochemical cell
The property of all electrical circuit elements that impedes the flow of current to some extent. It is measured in ohms. electrical resistance
Law stating that in a DC-circuit component of resistance R, the current (I) through the component is directly proportional to the potential difference (voltage; V) Ohm's law
An electrical device designed to open the circuit and stop the current when a high-current situation exists due to a fault in the circuit. overcurrent protection
A reusable overcurrent protection device that opens a switch when the pulsing, high-current conditions associated with arcing are detected. It often includes a microprocessor-controlled sensor and can be reset after the fault is corrected. arc-fault circuit interrupter
An electrical device that instantly opens the circuit when it senses that an abnormal path for the current to ground exists. It is specifically designed to protect human life rather than property and can be reset when the fault is corrected. ground-fault circuit interrupter
Created by: heidio