BJU Physical Sci 9
BJU Physical Science - Ch 9
|A theory that defined thermal energy as an substance that flowed from hot bodies into cold bodies. ||caloric theory
|A device that measures thermal energy transfer between objects contained in a chamber insulated from its surroundings. ||calorimeter|
|The flow of thermal energy from a hotter to a cooler object by direct contact. ||conduction|
|Any substance that will allow the flow of thermal energy; in electricity, a substance that holds its valence electrons loosely, allowing the flow of electricity. ||conductors|
|The flow of thermal energy from one place to another by the movement of particles. ||convection|
|A flow of matter in a fluid as warmer, lower density fluid is displaced upward by cooler, denser fluid flowing downward. With a continuous heat input, the flow follows a cyclical path. It can occur only in a gravitational field. ||convection current|
|The amount of disorder and randomness in a system, unusable energy. ||entropy|
|A quantity of thermal energy that flows from one system to another. ||heat|
|The amount of thermal energy an entire object must gain or lose to change its temperature 1 °C. ||heat capacity|
|The sum of all forms of particle energy in a substance.
|A material that does not easily conduct thermal energy or electricity. Insulators are poor conductors with tightly bound valence electrons. ||insulator|
|The absolute temperature scale, whose theoretical zero point is absolute zero. Its single fiducial point is the triple point of pure water (273.16 K); one kelvin is the same size unit as one degree Celsius.
|The amount of thermal energy absorbed per gram as a solid melts (fuses) at its melting point. The same amount of heat per gram must be released to freeze the substance.
||latent heat of fusion|
|The amount of thermal energy absorbed per gram as a liquid vaporizes. The same amount of heat per gram must be released to condense the vapor to a liquid.
||latent heat of vaporization|
|Nuclear particles or electromagnetic waves that radiate away from their sources; a method of heat transfer through radiant(electromagnetic) energy. ||radiation|
|The amount of thermal energy needed to raise or lower the temperature of 1g of a substance 1 C. ||specific heat|
|The measure of the average kinetic energy in a material. ||temperature|
|The condition of a system that is at the same temperature as its surroundings so there is no net flow of thermal energy. ||thermal equilibrium|
|A thermal property of most materials in which length or volume increase in proportion with increasing temperature. ||thermal expansion|
|A temperature scale with fiducial points at the freezing point (0 °C) and the boiling point (100 °C) of pure water at 1 atm of pressure. ||Celsius scale|
|A unit of temperature whose magnitude depends on which system is being used. ||degree|
|A temperature scale with fiducial points at the freezing point (32 °F) and the boiling point (212 °F) of pure water at 1 atm of pressure. ||Fahrenheit scale
|Fixed, precise, and easily reproducible values in a dimension used to calibrate a measuring scale.
|Law stating that every natural process proceeds toward a condition of lowest usable energy and highest entropy.
||second law of thermodynamics|
|A piston engine containing a working gas that is transferred between hot and cold heat exchangers to move the pistons. The source of heat comes from outside the engine.
|An instrument that uses a thermometric property to measure and display temperature.
|Any property of matter that varies in
proportion to changes in temperature. ||thermometric property|
|The pressure and temperature conditions at which the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a substance simultaneously exist in a stable condition. ||triple point|