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# BJU Physical Sci 9

### BJU Physical Science - Ch 9

A theory that defined thermal energy as an substance that flowed from hot bodies into cold bodies. caloric theory
A device that measures thermal energy transfer between objects contained in a chamber insulated from its surroundings. calorimeter
The flow of thermal energy from a hotter to a cooler object by direct contact. conduction
Any substance that will allow the flow of thermal energy; in electricity, a substance that holds its valence electrons loosely, allowing the flow of electricity. conductors
The flow of thermal energy from one place to another by the movement of particles. convection
A flow of matter in a fluid as warmer, lower density fluid is displaced upward by cooler, denser fluid flowing downward. With a continuous heat input, the flow follows a cyclical path. It can occur only in a gravitational field. convection current
The amount of disorder and randomness in a system, unusable energy. entropy
A quantity of thermal energy that flows from one system to another. heat
The amount of thermal energy an entire object must gain or lose to change its temperature 1 °C. heat capacity
The sum of all forms of particle energy in a substance. internal energy
A material that does not easily conduct thermal energy or electricity. Insulators are poor conductors with tightly bound valence electrons. insulator
The absolute temperature scale, whose theoretical zero point is absolute zero. Its single fiducial point is the triple point of pure water (273.16 K); one kelvin is the same size unit as one degree Celsius. Kelvin scale
The amount of thermal energy absorbed per gram as a solid melts (fuses) at its melting point. The same amount of heat per gram must be released to freeze the substance. latent heat of fusion
The amount of thermal energy absorbed per gram as a liquid vaporizes. The same amount of heat per gram must be released to condense the vapor to a liquid. latent heat of vaporization
Nuclear particles or electromagnetic waves that radiate away from their sources; a method of heat transfer through radiant(electromagnetic) energy. radiation
The amount of thermal energy needed to raise or lower the temperature of 1g of a substance 1 C. specific heat
The measure of the average kinetic energy in a material. temperature
The condition of a system that is at the same temperature as its surroundings so there is no net flow of thermal energy. thermal equilibrium
A thermal property of most materials in which length or volume increase in proportion with increasing temperature. thermal expansion
A temperature scale with fiducial points at the freezing point (0 °C) and the boiling point (100 °C) of pure water at 1 atm of pressure. Celsius scale
A unit of temperature whose magnitude depends on which system is being used. degree
A temperature scale with fiducial points at the freezing point (32 °F) and the boiling point (212 °F) of pure water at 1 atm of pressure. Fahrenheit scale
Fixed, precise, and easily reproducible values in a dimension used to calibrate a measuring scale. fiducial point
Law stating that every natural process proceeds toward a condition of lowest usable energy and highest entropy. second law of thermodynamics
A piston engine containing a working gas that is transferred between hot and cold heat exchangers to move the pistons. The source of heat comes from outside the engine. Stirling engine
An instrument that uses a thermometric property to measure and display temperature. thermometer
Any property of matter that varies in proportion to changes in temperature. thermometric property
The pressure and temperature conditions at which the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a substance simultaneously exist in a stable condition. triple point
Created by: heidio