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BJU Physical Sci 7

BJU Physical Science - Ch 7

QuestionAnswer
An arrangement of fixed and movable pulleys connected by ropes; has a high mechanical advantage. Also called a pulley gang. block and tackle
The distance an effort must be exerted on a simple machine increases inversely in proportion to the effort reduction according to its MA; a consequence of the law of the conservation of energy, which states that work input must equal work output. distance principle
The arm between the fulcrum and effort. effort arm
The force exerted on a simple machine to do work on a load. effort force
A lever in which the fulcrum is located between the effort and the resistance. first-class lever
The point about which a lever pivots or rotates. fulcrum
A wheel with teeth on its perimeter that mesh with similar teeth of other gears to do work while producing rotational motion. gear
In its most basic form, a two-dimensional surface whose opposite ends are at two different heights. It forms the basis for wedges, stairways, ramps, and screws. incline plane
Law stating that in a lever system in rotational equilibrium, the effort moment equals the resistance moment. w1d1 = w2d2. law of moments
A simple machine that can be modeled as a rigid bar that pivots about a fulcrum to exert an effort moment against a resistance moment. lever
The system on which work is done by a machine; the resistance force acting on a simple machine. Also called resistance. load
A measure of the reduction in effort to do a certain amount of work when using a simple machine. mechanical advantage
The distance between two adjacent threads on a screw. A smaller number indicates greater holding power. pitch
The rate of doing work, measured in watts in SI. power
A modified lever consisting of a rope that moves around a grooved wheel; can be movable or fixed. pulley
The arm between the fulcrum and the resistance. resistance arm
The force exerted on a simple machine by a load. resistance force
The condition in which the sum of all the torques on a system is zero—the system will rotate either at a constant speed or not begin to rotate at all; the equivalent to Newton’s first law for linear motion. rotational equilibrium
An inclined plane wound around a cylinder or cone used to hold 2 objects together. screw
A lever in which the resistance is located between the fulcrum and the effort. second-class lever
A basic mechanical device that either reduces effort or increases the magnitude of motion for a given input motion when doing a certain amount of work. simple machines
A lever in which the effort is applied between the fulcrum and the resistance. third-class lever
The number of threads per inch counted along the shaft of a screw. Greater TPI implies greater holding power. thread count
The SI unit of power; it equals 1 J/s. watt
A three-dimensional object that uses inclined planes to exert a force to spread a material apart as it is forced into the material. wedge
A modified lever in which the axle is the axis on which a wheel rotates. wheel and axle
The equivalent of the amount of energy transferred to an object when a force acts on the object to move it in a direction parallel to the force vector; a scalar quantity measured in joules (J) in the SI. mechanical work
The distance between an applied force and the pivot point of a lever when computing a moment or torque. Also called lever arm. moment arm
Quantity produced by a force exerted perpendicularly to a lever at the end of a moment arm. Also called torque. moment
Created by: heidio on 2008-12-21



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