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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Medical Terminolgy, Hernia's, Abbreviations

How many Categories of teeth 3- Incisors, Cuspids, Molars
Incisors The teeth in the front of the mouth. They are shaped like chisels and are useful in biting off large pieces of food. Each person has eight incisors (four on top and four on bottom)
Cuspids The pointy teeth immediately behind the incisors. Also called the canines, these teeth are used for grasping or tearing food. Each person has four cuspids (two on the top and two on the bottom)
Molars The flattened teeth used for grinding food. They are the furthest back in the mouth, and their numbers can vary among people
Abdomin/o abdomen, abdominal
An/o anus
ase enzyme
Bil/i bile
Bucc/o cheek
Cec/o cecum
celi/o abdomen
cele hernia
Cheil/o lip
chezia defecation
Chol/e, chol/o bile, gallbladder
Choledoch/o common bile duct
Cholecyst/o gallbladder
Cirrh/o orange/yellow
Col/o large intestine, colon
Dent/I, dent/o, dont/o teeth
Dia through, throughout, completely
Duoden/o duodenum
ectasia, ectasis dilation, expansion
emesis vomiting
End/o, ent/o within, inner, containing
Enter/o small intestine
Esophag/o esophagus
Gastr/o stomach
Gingiv/o gingivae, gums of the mouth
Gloss/o Tongue
Hepat/o liver
Herni/o rupture, protrusion of part of a structure through the tissue containing it
Ile/o ileum
Jejun/o jejunum
Labi/o lips
Lapar/o abdomen
Lingu/o tongue
Lith/o stone
lysis release
Or/o mouth
ostomy, stomy artificial or surgical opening
otomy incision into
Pancreat/o pancreas
Pepsia digestion
Peritone/o peritoneum
phagia eating, devouring
plasty technique involving molding or surgically forming
Proct/o anus, rectum
Rect/o rectum
rrhea flowing, flux
scope,scopy action involving the use of an instrument for viewing
Sial/o saliva
Sialaden/o salivary gland
Sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
Splen/o spleen
Stomat/o mouth
Uvul/o uvula, grape
Viscer/o the viscera, internal organs
Barret's Esophagus an abnormal growth of the stomach or intestinal cells at the distal end of the esophagus
Esophagitis an inflammation of the linning of the esophagus
Esophageal Varices extremely dilated submucosal veins in the lower end of the esophagus. most often caused by portal hypetension and and cirrhosis of the liver. Have a strong tendency of bleeding
Mallory - Weiss Tear occurs in the mucous membrane of the esophagus, where it connects to the stomach. Tears usually are caused by forceful or long term vomiting, or by epileptic convulsions. May be followed by bright red blood or by passing blood in stool
Hiatal Hernia an anatomical abnormality in which part of the stomacj protrudes or herniates through the opening of the diaphragm and up into the chest
Swallowing Disorders or Dysphagia any condition that causes impairment of the movement of solids or fluids from the mouth, down the throat, and into the stomach
Hot Biopsy Forceps Uses monopolar current, requiring a grounding pad placed somewhere on the patient. The use of "hot" forceps enables the provider to simultaneously excise a lesion and control bleeding and, if needed preserve specimen for histological examination.
Prolapse An internal hemorrhoid that descends and protrudes past the anal sphincter
Thrombosis A clot of blood within the hemorrhoid that causes acute pain
Strangulation A hemorrhoid in which blood supply has become occluded by constricting action of the anal sphincter
Ulceration A hemorrhoid in which there is inflammation or necrotic changes of tissue
Fistula A tube-like tract with one opening in the anal canal and the other opening usually in the perianal skin of the rectum
Fissure An acute longitudal tear, painful linear grove, or a chronic ovoid ulcer of the anal canal
Inguinal Hernia The abdominal contents protrude into the inguinal canal. Most common. method of repair depends on the age of patient
"Sliding" Inguinal Hernia (49525) The peritoneal organs (eg ascending colon, bladder, or cecum) protrude in such away that the wall of the internal organ forms a portion of the hernia sac
Lumbar Hernia (49540) These posterior abdominal wall or retroperitoneal outpouching occur between the 12th rib and the iliac crest
Femoral Hernia (49550-49557) The intestine protrudes along the femoral canals. Found more frequently in adults and may occur due to multiple pregnancies, obesity, or connective tissue degeneration, and are common in the aging process
Incisional or Ventral Hernia (49560-49566) Protrusion occurs at the incisional site following abdominal surgery.
Epigastric Hernia (49570-49572) Protrusion occurs in the midline between the xiphoid process and the umbilicus
Umbilical Hernia (49580-495870) Protrusion occurts at the umbilicus as a result of an abnormally large or week umbilical ring
Spigelian Hernia (49590) Although uncommon, this type of hernia consists of protruding properitoneal fat, a peritoneal sac, or a viscous-containing sac through Spigelain zone. This zone is in the lower abdominal region on either the right or left side lateral to the rectus muscle
EGD esophagogastroduodenenscopy
ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease
GI gastrointestinal
IBD Inflammatory bowel disease
IBS Irritable Bowel Syndrome
LLQ left lower quadrant
LUQ Left upper quadrant
PEG percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
PEH paraesophageal herniar
RLQ right lower quadrant
RUQ right upper quadrant
Created by: BBracha