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Carnegie geriatrics

geriatrics quiz #2 review MA Winter 2015

Suggestions for helping older adults with mobility, dexterity, and balance use assistive devices:adaptive silverware, tub seat or shower chair, electric razor, reaching devices. Assist with gripping devices as needed. Older adults may need more time to complete tasks but prefer to do so independently, so slow down.
Suggestions for helping older adults with mobility, dexterity, and balance support stroke victims on weak side when walking or transferring from chair to exam table. Physical therapy for range of motion exercises, encourage activity
signs and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease repeatedly asking same questions, inability to remember common words we're mixing up words, inability to complete simple tasks and miss placing items, lost when driving, sudden mood swings, difficulty following simple directions
first stage of Alzheimer's disease mild AD occurs during 2-4 yrs leading up to diagnosis,memory loss affects job performance, confusion and disorientation.mood or personality changes, difficulty making decisions and paying bills, gets lost easily, withdraws from others, loses things.
what happens to peristalsis as we age? decreases, contributes to constipation, difficulty swallowing, slow digestion
how do you improve peristalsis? drink plenty of water, increase physical activity, high fiber diet
send mucous membrane lining in stomach increases the risk for ulcers
decreased liver function increases risk of adverse reactions to drugs, side effects
left body fluids dehydration can happen very easily nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, very dangerous for an elderly person
changes in the skin that increase the fragility of elderly skin dermis thins, decreased collagen, decreased subcutaneous fat feeling cold, skin cells take longer to regenerate for repair and replacement
decreased sweat and oil production drier skin, more likely to overheat
nails get thicker and more brittle and ridged
overall body hair thins and greys
bruise more easily
decreased function of pain receptors higher pain threshold, can tolerate more pain, might not feeling injury
overall decrease in bone mass result in loss of height, increased risk of fracture
excessive bone loss equals osteoporosis
how does overall bone decrease in bone mass occur phone compressed down on themselves, especially the vertebrae in the spine
intervertebral discs get thinner contributes to decreased height
muscle cells decrease in size which decrease is strange and range of motion
space is replaced by fat and fibrous tissue which doesn't contract, decreases strength
muscle fibers are stiffer, less elastic which decreases range of motion
tendons and ligaments atrophy and get stiffer which decreases range of motion
synovial fluid equals joint fluid
synovial fluid gets thicker which decreases range of motion, increases risk of osteoarthritis, joint stiffness
ticular cartilage gets thinner which leads to joint stiffness, decreases ROM, increases risk of osteoarthritis
maintaining good physical activity is important to increase range of motion and keep muscle strong
decreased brain mass neurons shrink from fluid losses
dendrite shrink in size which leads to decreased transmission of electrical impulses, difficulty retrieving information, lower learning
ADL activities of daily living
risk factors of dementia HTN, DM, heart disease, high stress levels, instead sedentary lifestyles and lack of social interactions, smoking and substance abuse, severe loss of intellectual ability
treatment of dementia medications, safety assessment, nutrition assessment, ability to carry out ADLs, caregiver stress
dementia is assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination would be done in the office first before a diagnosis or treatment plan, takes about 5 minutes
What contributes to elderly skin getting more fragile? Decrease thickness of collagen in dermis, decrease in sub-Q fat, slow regeneration of skin cells.
Makes post-menstrual women more likely to develop osteoporosis Small boned, thin body type; decreased estrogen levels; smoking
Your patient is in stage 2 of alzheimer's disease. which of the following behaviors most likely signify stage 2? Asking the same question repeatedly
Created by: ma2b