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GA Studies Content

Year long review of 8th Grade Georgia Studies Content terms

Paleo the oldest prehistoric Native American culture group; hunted large, slow moving animals with Clovis Point spear and were nomadic.
Archaic First prehistoric Native American culture group to make pottery; hunted small game like deer, bear with atlatl; horticulture began during this period.
Woodland Invented the bow and arrow; mound builders; lived in dome-shaped huts, semi-permanent
Mississippian Religion based leadership with temple mounds, wore headdresses and tattoos; palisades and moats show the need for defense during this time. Permanent dwellings, because of reliance on agriculture
Ridge and Valley Geographic region known for apple growth and and textiles.
Appalachian Plateau Smallest region, TAG corner
Piedmont Most populated region in GA, center of business in Georgia, rolling hills
Fall Line where hilly, mountainous land meets the coastal plain; separates the Piedmont region from the Coastal Plain.
Coastal Plain Largest region (3/5ths of the state), center of agriculture, home to Okefenokee Swamp and 100 miles of coastline.
Blue Ridge Highest region in elevation in GA, region with most precipitation, has Brasstown Bald, highest point in GA, Mountainous
Okefenokee Swamp Largest swamp in North America, located in S.E. GA
Chattahoochee River Makes up GA's SW border with Alabama
Savannah River Makes up GA's eastern border with S.C.
Barrier Islands Off the coast of GA, protect mainland from erosion.
Hernando de Soto First European to step foot in and explore present day GA. Spread disease and death among Native American population
Spanish Missions Spanish churches established along GA's coast to convert Natives to Catholicism. Guale (Wallie) famous reason
James Oglethorpe Founded GA in 1733, wanted to improve prison conditions in England by sending debtors to new colony
Charter of 1732 signed by King George II; legal document that establishes the colony of GA; It was granted to a group of 21 trustees. Establishes GA's original boundaries as Savannah River to Altamaha and westward indefinitely
Catholics, blacks, lawyers, liquor dealers 4 groups of people were banned from GA by the 21 Trustees
Charity, mercantilism, defense main causes for settling GA
Tomochichi Yamacraw mico (chief) who allowed Oglethorpe to settle on Yamacraw Bluff, became friends with J.E.O.
Mary Musgrove Translator between Oglethorpe and Tomochichi
Savannah First city in GA, first planned city in the New World
Salzburgers German Protestants who settled in Ebenezer, GA; they came to escape religious persecution and because GA was anti-slave; moved to New Ebenezer because of the poor soil in Ebenezer.
Highland Scots known for being good soldiers; they were anti-slavery; settled in Darien, GA and helped Oglethorpe in the Battle of Bloody Marsh.
Malcontents In colonial GA, they were known for being unhappy and contstantly complaining; they did not agree with regulations on slavery, the sale of rum, and ownership of land
Spanish Florida Threat to English colonies up the East Coast, GA was established to be a buffer between other colonies
John Reynolds 1st Royal Governor, introduced self-government and bi-cameral legislature
Henry Ellis 2nd Royal Governor, wimpy, left because it was too hot for him
James Wright The "Wright" man for the job- 3rd and final Royal Governor, expanded defenses of colony. Longest serving of the Governors
French and Indian War Britain v. France. Fight over control of Ohio River valley. Led to British debt, new taxes on colonies, and Proclamation of 1763
Proclamation of 1763 forbid colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains; Changed GA's southern border to the St. Mary's River and western border to the Mississippi River.
Stamp Act Tax on paper goods; newspapers, legal documents, licenses, playing cards, etc.
Intolerable Acts response to the Boston Tea Party; Included 1) No town meetings 2) Boston port would be closed until tea could be paid for. 3) Quartering Act 4) British officials charged with a crime would be tried in Great Britain.
Declaration of Independence Statement of colonial independence from Great Britain. 3 parts; Preamble, Complaints, Declaration
Loyalist Person/people who remain loyal to Great Britain and King George III
Patriot Person/people who wanted to break away from Great Britain and King George III
Elijah Clarke Leader of GA militia in the Battle of Kettle Creek
Battle of Kettle Creek Patriot victory in GA during American Revolution. GA got needed weapons and a boost in morale
Austin Dabney Black soldier during American Revolution. Saved life of Elijah Clarke in Battle of Kettle Creek. Received land for fighting in the Revolution
Nancy Hart American Revolutionary who killed a group of Tories. Only female to have GA county named after her.
Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton GA signers of the Declaration of Independence
Siege of Savannah Patriots tried to retake Savannah from British, failed.
GA Constitution of 1777 1st constitution of GA, created 3 branches, had unicameral legislature with majority of power (no checks and balances)
Articles of Confederation the first written plan for the government of the United States of America; it created a weak central government and each state received one vote in Congress; There was no executive or judicial branch.
Abraham Baldwin GA signer of the Constitution, deciding vote in Great Compromise about creating legislature
William Few GA signer of the Constitution
Bill of Rights First 10 Amendments to U.S. Constitution. Guarantees basic rights and regulates federal governmental power.
Lousiville 3rd capitol of GA, Yazoo land fraud documents burnt here by "fire from the heavens"
Baptist and Methodist 2 largest religious denominations in a westwardly expanding GA.
Headright system Land distribution system under which each white male head of a family had right to receive up to 1000 acres
Land lottery Land distribution system under which any white male 21 years or older could buy a chance to win land. Widows could also participate. Replaces the Headright system
Yazoo land fraud GA scandal that caused GA to lose all land west of the Chattahoochee River, known as the Mississippi territory
cotton gin enabled farmers to quickly separate seed from cotton. Made cotton "king" and caused need for slaves to dramatically increase
Eli Whitney Invented cotton gin
Railroads cause of Terminus, later renamed Atlanta. Allowed for cheap, quick movement of people, goods westward
Alexander McGillivray Creek Chief. Led Oconee War against US. Ceded Creek land east of the Oconee (most of the Creek's territory in Georgia)
William McIntosh Creek Chief. Signed Treaty of Indian Springs ceding/selling remaining Creek land to GA.
Sequoyah Created Cherokee syllabary
Syllabary group of symbols that stand for whole syllables
Dahlonega Gold Rush Discovery of Gold in Cherokee territory expedited the removal of Cherokee from Georgia.
Samuel Worcester U.S. Supreme Court decision in which John Marshall ruled that Cherokee territory was not subject to state law. Althought it was thought to be a victory for the Cherokee, the state of GA and even the President refused to follow the decision.
Andrew Jackson U.S. President who signed the Indian Removal Act, removing Cherokee from GA. Ignored Supreme Court decision protecting Cherokee sovereignty.
John Marshall Chief Justice of Supreme Court ruled in favor of Cherokee in Worcester v. GA
Trail of Tears Forced removal of Cherokee from GA to Oklahoma territory. 1/3 of Cherokee died on trail.
John Ross Cherokee Chief who traveled to Washington to try and protect Cherokee lands in GA
antebellum period before the Civil War
Slavery free labor force
states' rights idea that the state's interest should take precedence over the interest of national government
nullification the early 1800's belief that a state could refuse to enforce the federal law.
Missouri Compromise Under this legislation, Maine entered the Union as a free state and Missouri entered as a slave state. This also stipulated that slavery would not be allowed north of Missouri's southern border.
Compromise of 1850 Under this legislation, California entered the Union as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act was passed, and slave trading was no longer allowed in Washington D.C.
Georgia Platform this was basically a statement supporting the Compromise of 1850 in Georgia.
Kansas-Nebraska Act Created territories of Nebraska and Kansas and gave them popular sovereignty in determining whether or not they would be a slave or free state
Dred Scott Case Court case in which a slave sued for his freedom based on the fact that he had lived in a free state. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the slave could not sue because he was a slave and not a citizen.
Popular Sovereignty authority of the government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
Election of 1860 Election of first Repbulican president (Lincoln). Would lead to S.C. secession
Abraham Lincoln First Republican elected President of the U.S.. Led through Civil War
Alexander Stephens Despite his strong support for GA to remain in the Union, once GA secceded, this man still became the vice president of the Confederate States of America.
Antietam Civil War battle. Bloodiest single day battle in American history. Followed by Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation Changed focus of Civil War from bringing back the South to ending slavery
Battle of Gettysburg Turning point of Civil War, the North starts to win.
Battle of Chickamauga Mismanaged Confederate victory in Civil War that would eventually allow North in Georgia
Union Blockade Part of North's "Anaconda Plan" to win Civil War; to obstruct or block all Confederate ports
March to the Sea Military exercise led by General Sherman from Atlanta to Savannah. "Total War" idea used instructs soldiers to destroy everything in their path. Used to end southern support for Civil War
William Tecumseh Sherman Infamous Union General who lead the Atlanta Campaign and the March to the Sea. Succeeded in ending southern support for the Civil War
Andersonville Awful Civil War Prison in GA for Union Soldiers
Freedmen's Bureau This government agency helped former slaves adjust to their new freedom after the Civil War. They offered food, clothing, and other necessities as well as having a focus on education.
Sharecropping System of farming in which a person has nothing but the knowledge of farming. Farms on another's land using another's tools
Tenant Farming System of farming where the farmer has everything except land, so they rent land
10% Plan Lincolns Reconstruction plan; sought to bring the South back into the Union quickly and look towards the future
Congressional Reconstruction This Reconstruction plan sought to treat the South like a conquered country. It was much harsher than Lincoln's plan espcially on the wealthy Southerners.
13th Amendment Amendment that abolishes slavery
14th Amendment Amendment grants citizenship and rights to all born on U.S. soil.
15th Amendment Amendment that protects voting rights for all men. States that voting rights cannot be restricted based on race
Black Codes Laws designed to restrict the rights of freedmen
Ku Klux Klan Secret organization that tried to keep freedmen from exercising their new civil rights. This often involved inflicting terror through beatings or killings.
Bourbon Triumvirate 3 political leaders of the state of GA who were drawn together by power and political goals. They helped GA's economy recover after Reconstruction, and returned GA to white supremacy
Henry Grady Coined the term "New South", or to be more like the industrialized north
International Cotton Exposition Fair in GA to show off state's recovery from the Civil War and our natural resources. Used to lure in northern investors
Tom Watson This Georgia populist leader called on black and white farmers to unite in an effort to gain fair treatment from the state and national government. He was also responsible for introducing the Rural Free Delivery bill while in Cogress.
Rebecca Lattimer Felton Georgian in opposition to the Bourbon Triumvirate. Leader of suffrage and temperance movements. 1st woman in U.S. Senate
1906 Atlanta Riot Race riot in Atlanta due to tension built by newspapers. 21 ended up dead
Leo Frank Case Court case displaying racism in GA. Led to re-emergence of KKK on top of Stone Mountain
County Unit System Voting system in Georgia giving rural areas more political power
Jim Crow laws discriminatory laws passed to establish "separate-but-equal" laws
Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court case establishing segregation as the law of the land
Disenfranchisement Having voting rights taken away
Bookwer T. Washington This civil rights leader was the president of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. He believed economic independence was the only way to social and political equality for blacks. He also gave a famous speech at the Cotton Expo of 1895
W.E.B. DuBois This civil rights leader believed the "Talented Tenth" of the African American population could serve as leaders for all other African Americans. Wanted equality now rather than later. Founding member of NAACP
John Hope Friend and supporter of W.E.B. DuBois. President of Atlanta College and founding member of NAACP
Lugenia Burns Hope Wife of John Hope and founder of Neighborhood Union.
Alonzo Herndon Former slave who started Atlanta Mutual Life Insurance.
Causes of WWI Militarism, imperialism, nationalism, and secret alliances. Sinking of the Lusitania, Zimmermann Telegraph
GA Contributions to WWI Training bases, textile mills making uniforms, RR's transporting soldiers and supplies, deep water ports, victory gardens, 3000 GA soldiers dying
Boll Weevil Insect that ate cotton
drought lack of rain
Causes of the Great Depression Lenient lending by banks, overproduction, unemployment, buying goods on credit, stock market crash
Eugene Talmadge GA Governor who opposed the New Deal
New Deal Series of programs designed to end the Great Depression through unemployment relief, economic recovery, and depression prevention
Civilian Conservation Corps New Deal program that gave jobs to young, single men planting trees and building parks
Agricultural Adjustment Act New Deal program to aid farmers through supply control
Rural Electrification Administration New Deal program designed to bring cheap electricity to rural areas. The program comes specifically from FDR's time in Warm Springs
Social Security Administration This New Deal program created a system of retirement and unemployment insurance for Americans
Pearl Harbor U.S. Naval base in the Pacific Ocean that was sight of a Japanese surprise attack on Dec. 7, 1941. Pulled U.S. into WWII
Lend lease act policy used by the U.S. at the beginning of WWII to allow Great Britain to borrow or rent weapons.
Savannah and Brunswick Deep water ports in GA, sites of Liberty ship shipyards
Bell Aircraft This Marietta factory built B-29 bombers, AKA Bell Bombers, during WWII and created 668 planes during the war.
Warm Springs Georgia city visited by FDR many times; sit of the "Little White House" and the location of FDR's death.
Carl Vinson This Georgia Congressman helped expand the U.S. Navy leading up to WWII; he is known as the "Father of the Two Ocean Navy".
Richard B. Russell This U.S. Senator from GA helped bring military bases to GA as well as being known as the "Father of the School Lunch Program".
William B. Hartsfield Atlanta Mayor known for making Atlanta the aviation hub of the southeast
Ivan Allen Jr Mayor of Atlanta who had segregationists signs torn off of City Hall, brought pro sports to Atlanta, and who helped Atlanta become the "city too busy to hate"
Professional sports The Falcons, Braves, Hawks
Ellis Arnall Changed voting age to 18, part of "3 Governors Controversy"
Benjamin Mayes Mentor to Martin Luther King Jr. taught him about non-violent teachings of Gandhi
1946 Governor's Race 3 Governors Controversy: Eugene Talmadge won, but died before he could take office. 2 People claimed the right to be governor; the Lt. Gov. and Herman Talmadge. Talmadge won in a special election.
Herman Talmadge Son of Eugene; White Supremacist; Extended school year to 9 months and shcool to grades 1-12; Introduced state's 1st sales tax.
Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court case ruling that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson and made segregation of public places illegal
Martin Luther King Jr Civil rights leader who used nonviolence to bring about change; He gave his "I Have a Dream" Speech at the March on Washington for jobs and equality
1956 state flag Flag changed in response to Brown v. Board and prominently displays Confederate battle flag
Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee Formed by college students. They helped register to vote and led sit-ins, boycotts, and Freedom Riders.
Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter First black students to integrate UGA
Albany Movement Failed movement to desegregate entire city of Albany, GA. Led by SNCC and Martin Luther King Jr.
March on Washington Protest to support equal rights and jobs for blacks. MLK Jr. gave his "I have a dream" speech
Civil Rights Act of 1964 This forced the integration of all public facilities including schools, restaurants, hotels, theaters, and recreation facilities. Initiated by JFK and signed by LBJ
Maynard Jackson First black mayor of Atlanta or any other major southern city.
Lester Maddox Segregationist governor of Georgia who appointed more black to office than all prior governors combined
Andrew Young 1st black U.S. Congressman from GA since Reconstruction. Ambassador to the United Nations. 2nd black mayor of Atlanta. Helped bring the Olympics to to Atlanta.
Reapportionment redrawing congressional voting districts to make sure that voting is fair
Jimmy Carter Served as GA state senator, governor, and the U.S. President; cut down GA's government to be more efficient
1996 Atlanta Olympics In the summer of 1996; brought millions of dollars in revenue to Atlanta; Atlanta's infrastructure was criticized for causing traffic problems.
Unruly behavior/status offense a law that has been broken that only applies to juveniles
Delinquent behavior Offense by a juvenile that would still be a crime if committed by an adult
Legislative Branch bicameral lawmaking body in Georgia; comprised of 180 Representatives and 56 Senators
Judicial Branch branch that judges the constitutionality of Georgia laws; headed by Supreme Court of 7 Justices
Executive Branch Largest branch of government in GA; Led by Governor and Lieutenant Governor.
Governor elected leader for the state of Georgia
We Type of local government body that gives city council power, while taking it away from the city mayor
Checks and balances System to keep governmental branches equal
Separation of Powers Assigning certain power to each branch of government; no other branch can then use that power
General Assembly Name for Georgia's bicameral lawmaking body
7 Deadly Sins Crimes committed by a juvenile that would get minor charged as adult with minimum 10 year prison sentence
Strong mayor Type of local government body that gives city mayor power, while taking it away from the city council
Council-manager Type of local government body in which a city has a council that chooses a city manager to run the city on a day-to-day basis
income money earned
profit Revenue left over after all expenses have been paid
entrepreneur person who starts a business
Municipality another word for a city
Special Purpose government Government body created by the legislature that operates independently of governmental structures. Ex: Marta, port authority,
Created by: cdjonesy