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Endocrine Reverse Definitions

diabetes mellitus a common pancreatic disorder involving insulin secretion into the blood, either in too much or too little quantities
dwarfism a condition of being abnormally small; may be hereditary or an endocrine dysfunction
polyphagia a condition of eating abnormally large amounts of food
cortisol a glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex
glycosuria abnormal amount of glucose in the urine
thyrotoxicosis abnormal condition of poisoning of the thyroid gland
hypervolemia abnormal increase in the volume of blood plasma in the body
gigantism abnormal overgrowth of the entire body caused by hypersecretion of pituitary growth hormone before puberty
hypocalcemia abnormally low amount of calcium in the blood
antagonistic acting in opposition; mutually opposing
radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) administration of radioactive iodine in pill or liquid form is used as a tracer to test how quickly the thyroid gland takes up iodine from the blood
epinephrine adrenaline- produced in the adrenal medulla. Increases heart rate, fat metabolism for energy, and dilates the bronchial tubes
sympathomimetic agent that mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
ketoacidosis an acute stage of diabetes mellitus characterized by hypotension and eventually, coma
pancreas an organ that contains groups of cells called the islets of Langerhans which produce endocrine secretions, such as insulin and glucagon
serum glucose tests blood tests to aid in the diagnosis of insulin deficiency
morbid obesity body mass index of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight
Addison disease chronic disorder of the adrenal glands caused by a deficiency of cortical hormones
islets of Langerhans clusters of cells in the pancreas which produce insulin and glucagon
hypercalcemia condition in which the calcium level in the blood is higher than normal
hyperkalemia condition in which the potassium level in the blood is higher than normal
thyroid storm crisis of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism caused by the release into the bloodstream of increased amount of thyroid hormone; also called thyroid crisis or thyrotoxic crisis
insulin tolerance test (ITT) diagnostic test in which insulin is injected into the vein to assess pituitary function, adrenal function, and to determine insulin sensitivity
Cushing syndrome disorder caused by hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex, resulting in excessive production of steroids
transsphenoidal hypophysectomy endoscopic procedure to surgically remove a pituitary tumour through an incision in the sphenoid sinus without disturbing brain tissue
obesity excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight
hyperinsulinism excessive amount of insulin in the blood- insulin shock
hyperglycemia excessive amount of sugar in the blood
hirsutism excessive distribution of body hair, especially in women
hypersecretion excessive secretion
parathyroidectomy excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands, usually to control hyperparathroidism
thymectomy excision of the thymus gland
thyroidectomy excision of the entire thyroid gland, a part of it, or a single lobe
hypokalemia extreme depletion of potassium in the blood usually lost in diuresis
glucogenesis formation of glucose from glycogen
parathyroid glands four separate glands that are located on the posterior surface of the lobes of the thyroid gland
endocrine glands glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood stream
glucagon hormone produced by pancreatic alpha cells that stimulates the liver to change stored glycogen to glucose
insulin hormone produced by pancreatic beta cells that allows body cells to use glucose for energy or store it in the liver as glycogen
mineralocorticoids hormones in the adrenal cortex that regulate water and mineral salts in the body
somatotropin human growth hormone found in the anterior pituitary lobe
pituitary gland hypophysis; pea-shaped gland that is located at the base of the brain
thyroid scan images of the thyroid gland are obtained after oral or intravenous administration of a small dose of radioactive iodine
computed tomography (CT) imaging technique that rotates an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measures the intensity of transmitted rays form different angles
hyposecretion inadequate secretion
growth hormone replacements increase skeletal growth in children and growth hormone deficiencies in adults
diuresis increased formation and secretion of urine
adrenal medulla inner section of the adrenal gland which secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
atrophy lack of development
thyroid gland largest gland on the endocrine system. Located in the neck, just below the larynx
insulins lower blood glucose by promoting its entrance into body cells and converting glucose to gylcogen
hyponatremia lower than normal level of sodium in the blood
virilism masculinization or development of male secondary sex characteristics in a woman
exophthalmometry measures the degree of forward displacement of the eyeball as seen in Graves disease
oral hypoglycemics medications used to stimulate the pancreas to secrete insulin
pinealectomy method of choice for removing a fibrous, nodular thyroid
electrolyte mineral salts that carry an electrical charge in solution
Graves disease multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by pronounced hyperthyroidism usually associated with enlarged thyroid gland and exophthalmos
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) noninvasive imaging technique that uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field rather that an x-ray beam to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images
norepinephrine noradrenalin; produced in the adrenal medulla. Increases blood pressure and constricts vessels
thyroxine (T4) one of the two major hormones produced by the thyroid. Regulates metabolism and energy levels
triiodothyronine (T3) one of the two major hormones produced, stored and released by the thyroid gland
adrenal cortex outer section of the adrenal gland which secretes steroids
pineal gland pine-cone shaped gland that is attached to the posterior part of the third ventricle of the brain
metabolism processes in which substances are broken down or built up during chemical reactions that are necessary to maintain life
exophthalmos protrusion of eyes due to swelling in tissues; often associated with Graves disease
acromegaly rare hormonal disorder in adulthood, usually caused by a GH-secreting pituitary tumour that promotes the soft tissue and bones of the face, hands, and feet to grow larger than normal
antidiuretics reduce or control excretion of urine
subtotal thyroidectomy removal of most of the thyroid to relieve hyperthyroidism
thyroid supplements replace or supplement thyroid hormones
corticosteroids replace hormones lost in adrenal insufficiency
glucose tolerance test (GTT) screening test in which a dose of glucose is administered and blood samples are taken afterward at regular intervals to determine how quickly glucose is cleared from the blood
pheochromocytoma small chromaffin cell tumour, usually located in the adrenal medulla, causing elevated heart rate and blood
aldosterone steroid produced in the adrenal cortex. Is essential to life. Maintains sodium and potassium levels
glucocorticoids steroids in the adrenal cortex that influence the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins
glycogen substance in which carbohydrates are stored in the liver for future conversion into sugar
adrenalectomy surgical excision of an adrenal gland
thyroidectomy surgical excision of the thyroid gland
thyroid function test (TFT) test that detects an increase or decrease in thyroid function
fasting blood sugar (FBS) test that measures glucose levels in a blood sample following a fast of at least 8 hours
total calcium test test that measures calcium to detect bone and parathyroid disorders
endocrinology the study of ductless glands, their secretions, and their function of homeostasis
hypoglycemia too little sugar in the blood
panhypopituitarism total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormonal activity
antithyroids treat hyperthyroidism by impeding the formation of T3 and T4 hormone
oral antidiabetics treat type 2 diabetes mellitus by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin and decrease peripheral resistance to insulin
adenoma tumour of a gland
insulinoma tumour of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas
adrenal glands two bean-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys which secrete steroid and sex hormones
thyroid echogram ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland
hypogonadism underdevelopment of internal secretions of male sex glands
antiduiretic hormone vasopressin; promotes reabsorption of water in the kidneys
thyrotoxic thyroid poisoning
Created by: spencertasha