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Carnegie geriatrics

geriatrics exam review number 1 sensory, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems

list the top 5 chronic conditions in the elderly arthritis, hearing impairments, visual impairments, hypertension, heart conditions
list the top five leading causes of death in the elderly heart disease, cancer, chronic lower respiratory disease(emphysema, chronic bronchitis),stroke, unintentional injuries
what are the normal changes of the lens? Lens become flatter, thicker, less elastic, more opaque, progressively yellows
why does night vision in the elderly become more difficult? light rays scatter and causes glare, decreased night vision
what causes excessive tearing in the elderly? Tear production decreases (lacrimation)- eyes aren't moist enough, causes dry eyes or excessive tearing
what is arcus senilis? yellow grey ring can develop on the periphery of the cornea
what is presbyopia? Farsightedness associated with aging- problems with near vision, begins around age 35 to 40
what is presbycusis? Lost his hearing associated with aging, usually bilateral loss of higher pitched sounds occurs first? Lower pitched sound later
no these suggestions for the hearing impaired elderly person stand in front when speaking, gently to get attention, use gestures, pictures,large bold print, talk in short sentences, talk to better ear, don't speak louder, increase volume raises pitch, avoid background noise, make sure hearing aid is turned on
what is hypogeusia and what causes it? decreased number of taste buds and decreased taste are normal changes of aging
which types of taste decrease first in hypogeusia? sweet and salty decreases
what types what happens to saliva production in the mouth? Decreased saliva production
why does sense of smell decrease in the elderly? normal decrease of aging, starts around 45, accuracy of olfactory bulbs, decrease in the number of olfactory cells in nose
know the factors that can alter the elderly persons nutritional status sensorimotor, diet influences, social and mental influences
describe sensorimotor changes that can affect the nutritional status of elderly people vision, hearing, taste, smell, can they feed themselves?
Describe diet influences that can affect the nourishment of the elderly can they afford food, ethnic cultural factors, disease-related diet restrictions
describe the social and mental influences that may cause nutritional issues in the elderly do they have a support system? Depressed, lonely, or isolated?
why does the elderly heart get bigger and stiffer? Myocardial cells enlarge, (normal change of aging) fat and connective tissue deposits increase, myocardial stiffens
what happens to cardiac output in the elderly? cardiac output decreases
how did the changes in cardiac output affect exercise endurance and recovery time? Decreases endurance and recovery time
why are arrhythmias more common in the elderly? decreased pacemaker cells
what happens to the arterial blood vessel walls? arteriosclerosis arterial walls become less elastic causing increased BP and hypertension
how does arteriosclerosis affect BP leads to increased BP andhypertension
what happens to the vein walls as a result of arterioscleros? Vein walls weaken and stretch - edema, varicose veins, increased risk of DVT( blood clots in legs)
no some factors for cardiovascular and health promotion regular exercise; weight control; diet rich in fruits, veggies, whole grains; cholesterol and blood glucose monitoring
what happens to most hormone production in the endocrine system? General decrease in hormone production
what is the most common endocrine disorder in the elderly? Type 2 diabetes mellitus
know the factors that can make diabetic management difficult for the elderly: modifying lifestyle risk factors more difficult ( poor nutrition)other diagnoses can complicate diabetes;Polypharmacy; prone to hypoglycemia, may not recognize symptoms; diabetic complications can develop quickly because of long history of prediabetes
Which of the following are leading causes of death in the elderly? heart disease, stroke, unintentional injuries
Elderly patients seen for tinnitus: common cause of this? Impacted cerumen and side effects of medications
What happens when the vein walls weaken and stretch? Edema, especially in the legs, ankles, feet and DVT.
Created by: ma2b