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Organic Definitions

*Chemistry Definitions* As Level

TermDefinition
Homologous Series A series of compounds with the same functional group, the same general formula, and where one member differs from the next by CH2
Empirical Formula Shows the simplest whole number ratio of the atoms present in one molecule
Molecular Formula Shows the actual number of atoms present in one moleculae
Structural Formula Shows each atom in the molecule seperately and how it is bonded. A more condenced way is to show the groupings around each carbon atom.
Isomers Two or more compounds with the same molecular formula.
Homolytic Fission When a bond breaks and one electron goes to each atom
Heterolytic Fission When a bond breaks and both electrons go to the same atom.
Substitution A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms are replaced by another atom or groups of atoms.
Addition A reaction in which two molecules react together to form a single product.
Elimination A reaction in which elements of a simple molecule such as HBr are removed without being replaced by an atom or groups of atoms
Hydrolysis A reaction in which water splits an orgainc into two components.
Free Radical A species with a single unpaired electron
Nucleophile A species which seeks out positive centres, and must have a lone pair of electrons ehich it donates to form a new dative covalent bond.
Electrophile A species which seeks out negative centres, and accepts a lone pair of electrons to form a new dative covalent bond.
Number of moles in relation to concentration Moles = Concentration / Volume (dm3)
Created by: mix on 2005-05-02



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