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Seizure Medications

Lorazepam or diazepam IV SSE: Dizziness, drowsiness, lethargy, respiratory depression, hypotension, dependence NC: Monitor BP, pulse, and respiratory status, monitor for phlebitis (irritating to blood vessels when given IV), Dilute before giving because medication is thick.
Phenytoin IV SSE: Hypotension, tachycardia, vasodilation NC: Administer with NSS only. Not compatible with solutions that contain dextrose.
Phenobarbitol IV SSE: Drowsiness, lethargy, respiratory depression, hypotension, dependence. NC: Monitor BP, pulse and respiratory status, monitor for phlebitis (irritating to blood vessels when given IV)
Carbamazepine PO SSE: Ataxia, photosensitivity, bone marrow supression, rash, SIADH, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome NC: Use sunscreen for photosensitivity. Take with food, Decreases effectiveness or oral contraceptives. Decrases warfarin levels. Monitor CBC. Norm level is 4-12
Phenobarbitol PO SSE: Drowsiness, respiratory depression, ataxia. NC: May cause daytime drowsiness. Decreases effectiveness or oral contraceptives. Decreases warfarin levels. Never withdraw abruptly as this can precipitate status epilepticus.
Phenytoin PO SSE SSE: Gingival hyperplasia (children),nausea, anemia, altered vitamin D metabolism, hepatoxicity, hypersensitivity (rash), pink or reddish-brown discoloration of urine, Phenytoin toxicity- discoordination, slurred speech, nystagmus, nausea, confusion,dizzy
Valproic acid PO / Divalproex sodium PO SSE: Hepatotoxicity, thrombocytopenia, sedation, dizziness, tremor. NC: Monitor hepatic function panel and platelets closely. take with food. take once daily doses at bedtime due to sedation. Normal blood level is 50-100
Gabapentin PO SSE: Drowsiness, ataxia(muscle discoordination), increased appetite and weight gain. NC: Do not take within 2 hours of an antacid. May be administered without regard to meals.
Lamotrigine PO SSE: Dizziness, diplopia, ataxia, rhinitis, potentially life-threatening rash, aseptic meningitis. NC: Take with food.
Levetiracetam PO SSE: Asthenia, headache, somnolence, infection NC: Take with food.
Topiramate PO SSE: Dizziness, fatigue, ataxia, psychomotor slowing, renal calculi. NC: Drink adequate fluids to minimize risks of renal calculi. May decrease effectiveness of oral contraceptives.
Created by: RybackRN