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med term wk 4

Medical Terminology a living language

How many bones are in the skeletal system? 206
What is the internal framework of the body called? skeleton
Which two primary structures make up the skeletal system? bones, joints
ankyl/o stiff joint
arthr/o joint
articul/o joint
burs/o sack
carp/o wrist
cervic/o neck
chondr/o cartilage
clavicul/o clacicle
coccyg/o coccyx
cortic/o outer portion
cost/o rib
crani/o skull
femor/o femur
fibul/o fibula
humer/o humerus
ili/o ilium
ischi/o ischium
kyph/o hump
lamin/o lamina, part of vertebra
lord/o bent backwards
lumb/o low back, loin
mandibul/o mandible
maxill/o maxilla
medull/o inner portion
metacarp/o metacarpals
metatars/o metatarsals
myel/o bone marrow, spinal chord
orth/o straight
oste/o bone
patell/o patella
ped/o child, foot
pelv/o pelvis
phalang/o phalanges
pod/o foot
prosthet/o addition
pub/o pubis
radi/o radius, ray (x-ray)
sacr/o sacrum
sarc/o flesh
scapul/o scapula
scoli/o crooked, bent
spin/o spine
spondyl/o vertebrae
stern/o sternum
synovi/o synovial membrane
synov/o synovial membrane
tars/o ankle
thorac/o chest
tibi/o tibia
uln/o ulna
vertebr/o Vertebra
-blast immature, embryonic
-clasia to surgically break
-desis stabalize, fuse
-listhesis slipping
-porosis porous
what two functions do bones have? protecting the organs and storing minerals
where are blood cells produced? bone marrow
the space where two bones meet joint
what holds two bones together? ligaments
the skeleton joints and muscles work together to produce movement
what is another word for bones? osseous tissue
what is the process of forming bones called? ossification
The fetal skeleton is formed from a _____ model cartilage
after cartilage is formed but before osteocytes are formed what makes up the skeleton? osteoblasts
what are adult bones called? osteocytes
what type of bone are the femur and humerus? long bones
what type of bone are the carpals and tarsals? short bones
what type of bones are the vertebrae? irregular bones
what type of bones are the scapulae, sternum and pelvis? flat bones
what is the central shaft in a long bone called? diaphysis
what are the wider parts at the ends of a long bone called? epiphysis
what is the layer of cartilage covering the epiphysis called? articular cartilage
what is the name of the thin connective tissue membrane covering the bone? periosteum
what is the dense hard exterior of the bone called? cortical or compact bone
what is the spongy bone found inside of a bone? cancellous or spongy bone
what do the spaces in cancellous bone contain? red bone marrow
which part of the bone manufactures most of the red blood cells? red bone marrow
what is the name of the canal in the center of the diaphysis? medullary cavity
what kind of bone marrow can be found in the medullary cavity in adulthood? yellow bone marrow
what does yellow bone marrow primarily consist of? fat cells
where does the term diaphysis come from and what does it mean? Greek, to grow between
a projection of the ulna called the olecranon is more commonly referred to as? funny bone
what is a process? a bony projection
what would a large smooth ball shaped end on a long bone called? head
what is the part that separates the shaft of a bone from the head? neck
what is the smooth rounded end of a bone called? condyle
what is the projection on or above the condyle called? epicondyle
What would you call the large rough process meant for the attachment of a muscle? trochanter/tuberosity
what would you call the small rough process meant for the attachment of muscles and tendons? tubercle
what5 would you call a hollow cavity within a bone? sinus
what would you call a smooth round opening for nerves and blood vessles? foramen
what would you call a shallow cavity or depression on the surface of a bone? fossa
fissure slit type opening
head neck spine chest and trunk of the body are part of which skeletal division? axial skeleton
what is the name of the u shaped bone suspended in the neck between the mandible and the larynx? hyoid bone
What is the frontal bone and how many are there? the forehead, 1
what is the parietal bone and how many are there? the upper sides of the cranium and roof of the skull, 2
what is the occipital bone and how many are there? back and base of the skull, 1
what is thew temporal bone and how many are there? sides and base of the cranium, 2
what is the sphenoid bone and how many are there? bat-shaped bone that forms the base of the skull, floor, and sides of the eye orbit, 1
what is the ethmoid bone and how many are there? forms part of the eye orbit, nose and floor of the cranium, 1
what is the lacrimal bone and how many are there? the inner corner of each eye, 2
what is the nasal bone and how many are there? form part of the septum and support the bridge of the nose, 2
what is the maxilla and how many are there? upper jaw, 1
what is the mandible and how many are there? lower jawbone, only moveable bone of the skull, 1
what is the zygomatic bone and how many are there? cheekbones, 2
what is the vomer bone and how many are there? base of the nasal septum, 1
what is the palatine bone and how many are there? hard palate roof of the oral cavity and floor of the nasal cavity, 1
what three parts does the trunk of the body consist of? vertebral column, sternum and ribcage
what is another name for the vertebral column? spinal column
what are the five sections of the trunk? cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, sacrum and coccyx
what is the name of the disk found in between vertebrae? intervertebral disc
what is an intervertebral disc made of? fibrocartilage
how many pairs of ribs in the rib cage are attached to the vertebral column? 12
how many ribs in the rib cage are attached to the sternum? 10
what are the lowest two pairs of ribs called? floating ribs
what are the cervical vertebrae and how many are there? vertebrae in the neck region, 7
what is the thoracic vertebrae and how many are there? vertebrae in the chest region with ribs attached, 12
what are lumbar vertebrae and how many are there? vertebrae in the small of the back about waist level, 5
what are the sacrum vertebrae and how many are there? Five vertebrae that become fused into one triangular shaped flat bone at the base of the vertebral column, 1
what are the coccyx and how many are there? three to five very small vertebrae attached to the sacrum that often become fused, 1
what 4 regions make up the appendicular skeleton? pectoral girdle, upper extremities, pelvic girdle and lower extremities
what is the function of the axial skeleton? to protect the organs
what is the function of the appendicular skeleton responsible for movement
which bones make up the pectoral girdle? clavicle and scapula
what are the bones of the upper extremities? humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges
what is the clavicle and how many are there? collar bone, 2
what is the scapula and how many are there? shoulder blade, 2
what is the humerus and how many are there? upper arm bone,2
what is the radius and how many are there forearm bone, thumb side of lower arm, 2
what is the ulna and how many are there? forearm bone on the little finger side of the lower arm, 2
what are the carpals and how many are there? bones of the wrist, 16
what are the metacarpals and how many are there? 10
what are the phalanges and how many are there? finger bones, three in each finger and two in each thumb, 28
what are three other names for the pelvic girdle? os coxae/ innonimate bone/ hipbone
what parts are included in the pelvic girdle? ilium, ischium, pubis
what are the bones found in the lower extremities? femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges
what is the femur and how many are there? upper leg bone, thigh bone, 2
what is the patella and how many are there? kneecap, 2
what is the tibia and how many are there? shin bone, thicker lower leg bone, 2
what is the fibula and how many are there? thinner long bone in lateral side of the lower leg, 2
what are the tarsals and how many are there? ancle and heel bones, 14
what are the metatarsals and how many are there? forefoot bones, 10
how many phalanges are in the feet? 28
what is an articulation? a spot where two or more bones meet to form a joint
what are the three types of joints? synovial joints, cartilaginous joints, fibrous joints
what type of movement does a synovial joint allow? free moving
what lines a joint capsule? synovial membrane
what encases a synovial joint? joint capsule
what fluid is secreted by the synovial membrane and what is it's purpose? synovial fluid lubricates joints
what is a bursa? a saclike structure composed of connective tissue and lined with synovial membrane
what type of movement does a fibrous joint allow? almost no movement
what type of movement do cartilaginous joints allow? slight movement
cutane/o skin
eryth/o red
path/o disease
-centesis to puncture to withdraw fluid
-genic producing
-iatry medical treatment
-ectomy surgical removal
-stenosis narrowing
cast applicant of a solid material to immobalize an extremity or portion of the body
fixation includes casts splints ect, the process of stabalizing a fractured bone
reduction correcting a fracture by realigning thew bone fragments
traction applying a pulling force on a fractured or dislocated limb in order to restore normal allignment
AE above elbow
AK above knee
BDT bone density testing
BE below elbow
BK below knee
BMD bone mineral density
C1, C2 ect cervical vertebrae
Ca calcium
DJD degenerative joint disease
DXA dual-energy absorpitometry
FX, Fx fracture
HNP herniated nucleus pulposus
JRA juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
L1, L2 ect lumbar vertebrae
LE lower extremity
LLE left lower extremity
LUE left upper extremity
NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflamitory drug
OA ostheoarthritis
ORIF open reduction-internal fixation
Orth, ortho orthopedics
RA rheumatoid arthritis
RLE right lower extremity
RUE right upper extremity
SLE systemic lupus erythromatosus
T1, T2, ect thoracic vertebrae
THA total hip arthroplasty
THR total hip replacement
TKA total knee arthroplasty
TKR total knee replacement
UE upper extremity
What is the defenition of a muscle? A bundle, sheet, or ring of tissue that produces movemen by contracting and pulling on the structure to which they are attached.
what are the primary structures of the muscular system? muscles
duct/o to bring
extens/o to stretch out
fasci/o fibrous band
fibr/o fibers
flex/o to bend
kinesi/o movement
muscul/o muscle
my/o muscle
myocardi/o heart muscle
myos/o muscle
plant/o sole of foot
rotat/o to revolve
ten/o tendon
tend/o tendon
tendin/o tendon
vers/o to turn
-asthenia weakness
-ion action, condition
-kinesia movement
-tonia tone
ab- away from
ad- toweards
circum- around
e- outward, without
in- inward, without
what are the three types of muscle? cardiac, smooth, skeletal
muscles that are under your control are called____muscles eg. bicept voluntary
muscles you are not able to control are called _____muscles eg. heart involuntary
another name for a skeletal muscle striated muscle
what would you call layers of fibrous connective tissue? fascia
what would you call the tapered end of a fascia? tendon
what stimulates muscles to contract or relax? motor neurons
what would you call the point in which the nerve contacts a muscle fiber? myoneural junction
what is another name for smooth muscle? visceral muscle
what is the rectus abdominis? abdominal muscle
what would you call the muscle located along the sternumand clavicle? sternocleoidomastoid
in muscle attatchment the spot in which a muscle is connected to the less moveable bone is called the origin
in muscle attachment the spot in which a muscle is connected to the more moveable bone is called the insertion
what is the function of an antagonistic pair? to produce opposite actions
what would you call the type of movement a muscle produces? action
what would you call a movement away from the midline of the body? abduction
what would you call a movement towards the midline of the body? adduction
what would you call the act of bending or being bent? flexion
what would you call the straightening out of a limb? extension
what is the term for backwards bending as of the hand or foot? dorsiflexion
what would you call the bending of the sole of the foot; pointing toes downward? plantar flexion
what would you call outward turning? eversion
what would you call inward turning? inversion
what would you call downward facing as with the hand? pronation
what would you call upward facing as with the hand? supination
what would the medical term for an action such as shrugging the shoulders be? elevation
what would a downward motion such as slouching the shoulders be called? depression
what would movement in a circular direction from a central point be called? circumduction
what would you call the ability to move the thumb away from the palm and to touch the fingers with the thumb opposition
what would you call the motion of moving around a central axis? rotation
adhesion scar tissue forming on the fascia surrounding a muscle
atonia poor muscle development (muscle wasting)
bradykinesia having slow movement
contracture abnormal shortening of muscle fibers
dyskinesia having difficult or painful movement
dystonia having abnormal muscle tone
hyperkinesia having an excessive amount of movement
hypertonia having excessive muscle tone
hypertrophy having an increase in muscle bulk resulting from lifting weights
hypokinesia insufficient movement
hypotonia having insufficient muscle tone
intermittent claudication attacks of severe pain and lameness caused by ischemia of the muscles
mylagia muscle pain
myasthenia muscle weakness
myotonia muscle tone
spasm sudde, involuntary, strong muscle contraction
tenodynia tendon pain
fasciitis inflamation of the fascia
fibromyalgia condition with widespread aching and pain in the muscles and soft tissue
lateral epicondylitis inflammation of the muscle attachment to the lateral epicondyl of the elbow.
muscular dystrophy inherited disease causing a progressive muscle degeneration, weakness, and atrophy
myopathy a general term for muscle disease
myorrhexis tearing a muscle
polymyositis the simultaneous inflammation of two or more muscles
pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy muscular dystrophy in which the muscles look large because they are replaced by fatty tissue
torticollis severe neck spasms pulling the head to one side
carpal tunnel syndrome repetitive motion dissorder with pain caused by compression of the finger flexor tendons and median nerve as they pass through the carpal tunnel of the wrist
ganglion cyst cyst that forms on the tendon sheath
repetetive motion dissorder group of chronic dissorders brought on by repetetive motions
strain dammage to the muscle tendons or ligaments due to overuse or overstretching
tendinitis inflammation of a tendon
deep tendon reflexes (DTR) muscle contraction in response to a stretch caused by the striking of a reflex hammer
electromyogram the hardcopy record produced by electromyography
electromyography study and record of the strength and quality of muscle contractions as a result of electrical stimulation
muscle biopsy removal of muscle tissue for pathalogical examination
CTS carpal tunnel syndrome
CPK creatine posphokinase
DTR deep tendon reflex
EMG electromyogram
IM intramuscular
MD muscular dystrophy
Created by: Megan Hussey Megan Hussey