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anatomy Unit 15

digestion a process to mechanically and chemically reduce food particles to molecules small enough to be absorbed into internal environment
function of the digestive system to digest food to be absorbed by the blood
2 parts of the digestive system alimentary canal and accessory organs
alimentary canal long tube thru which food passes; mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus
accessory organs teeth, salivary glands (3pairs), liver, gallbladder, pancreas
tasks mechanical digestion and chemical digestion
mechanical digestion break-up, mix & propel food
chemical digestion release of digestive enzymes to split complex molecules into small absorbable particles that can pass thru intestine wall
four walls of alimentary canal serosa, muscular layer, submucosa, mucosa
serosa outer layer wall of the alimentary canal
muscular layer wall of the alimentary canal that is responsible for peristalsis
peristalsis (on exam) wave-like contractions
submucosa submucosa layer
mucosa mucous membrane layer of the alimentary canal; absorptive surface; columnar epithelial tissue; produce digestive secretions and mucosa
mouth cheeks, palate and tongue; food moistened and chewed
bolus small balls of chewed, moistened food
teeth mechanically break up food
mastication chewing
deciduous baby
saliva produced by salivary glands 99.5 % H2O
three salivary glands parotid (ear); submandibular (floor of mouth); and sublingual (under tongue)
salivary amylase breaks down starch and glycogen into maltose
lysozyme kills certain bacteria
pharynx (throat) epiglottis closes trachea to direct food to esophagus
esophagus long tube from pharynx to stomach sphincter (muscle) at end...cardiac (esophageal) sphincter; muscle contractions move through esophagus; no digestive functions
stomach when empty have rugae (numerous folds); three functions; temporary storage of food; mix food with gastric juices; start digestion of proteins by pepsin
rennin enzyme that curdles milk
four types of secretory cells of gastric glands chief cells, parietal cells, enteroendocrine cells, mucus cells
chief cells pepsinogen which becomes pepsin to digest proteins
parietal cells (on exam) secrete HCI
enteroendorcrine cells gastrin; regulates muscle contraction and secretion
mucus cells secrete mucus
helicobacter pylori malfunctions of mucus cells; ulcers
two hormones gastrin and secretin
gastrin increased secretion of gastric juice
secretin less secretion of gastric juice
pyloric sphincter junction between stomach and small intestine; controls passage of chyme
small intestine where most nutrient absorption take place
folds circular folds, villi and microvilli increase the absorptive surface area
three regions of the small intestine duodenum, jejunum, ileum
duodenum first part; where bile enters and pancreatic juice
jejunum middle part of the small intestine
ilieum last part of the small intestine
pancreatic juice strong enough all by itself for digestion
gallbladder stores bile that the liver makes
bile added to duodenum to speed digestion
emulsification fat digestion
ileocecal valve junction of small intestine and large intestine
large intestine three segments; cecum, colon, rectum; absorption of water, minerals, and vitamins
cecum large intestine segment; appendix hangs off
colon large intestine segment; ascending; transverse;descending; sigmoid
rectum large intestine segment; anal canal, anus, internal sphincter (involuntary), external sphincter (voluntary)
feces lower colon; mass movements to defecate
8 essential amino acids must get from food our body cannot make them; methionine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine
lipids our body needs them; we make most of our own; the ones we cannot make are essential fatty acids (corn oil, olive oil)
bariatric surgery for obesity
Created by: auntieann7777