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Medical Terminology

Chapter 2

apex tip of a conical structure
body(corporis) largest, most important part of an organ
fornix any vault-like or arched structure
fundus base or deepest part of a hollow organ that is farthest from the mouth of the organ (fundi)
hilum recess, exit, or entrance of a duct into a gland
lumen the space within an artery, vein, intestine, or tube
sinus a cavity or channel in a bone, a dilated channel for blood, or a cavity that permits the escape of pus material
vestibule a small space or cavity at the beginning of a canal
musculoskeletal sys. support, movement, protection
integumentary sys. cover, protection
gastrointestinal sys. nutrition
urinary sys. elimination of nitrogenous waste
reproductive sys. reproduction
blood/lymphatic/immune sys. transportation of nutrients/waste, protection
cardiovascular sys. transportation of blood
respiratory sys. delivers oxygen to cells and removes carbon dioxide
nervous/behavioral sys. receive/process information
special senses (eye, ear) information gathering
endocrine sys. chemical messengers
hemo/o, hemat/o blood
oste/o, osse/o bone
lys/o breakdown/dissolve
cyt/o, cellul/o cell
epitheli/o epithelium
adip/o fat
cardi/o heart
myocardi/o heart muscle
chym/o juice
my/o, muscul/o muscle
neur/o nerve
thel/o nipple
kary/o, nucle/o nucleus
organ/o, viscer/o organ, viscera
home/o same
strom/o stroma
system/o system
bol/o to throw, throwing
hist/o tissue
abdomin/o, celi/o, lapar/o abdomen
dors/o back
chondr/o cartilage
crani/o cranium, skull
diaphragmat/o, diaphragm/o, phren/o diaphragm
front/o, ventr/o front
inguin/o groin
ile/o, ili/o ilium
lumb/o lower back
mediastin/o mediastinum
viscer/o, organ/o organ
pelv/i, pelv/o pelvis
peritone/o peritoneum
pleur/o pleura
spin/o spine
stern/o sternum
gastr/o stomach
thorac/o chest
umbilic/o, omphal/o umbilicus (navel)
vertebr/o vertebra
pariet/o wall
ana- up, apart, away
cata- down
en- in
endo- within
epi above, upon
meta- beyond, change
para- near, beside, normal
-al, -ous pertaining to
-ia, -ism condition, state of
-on structure
-plasm formation
-some body
-stasis controlling, stopping
-um, -us structure
buccal pertaining to the cheek
cephalic pertaining to the head
cervical pertaining to the neck
cranial pertaining to the skull
facial pertaining to the face
frontal pertaining to the front or forehead
mental pertaining to the chin
nasal pertaining to the nose
ocular pertaining to the eye
oral pertaining to the mouth
otic pertaining to the ear
abdominal pertaining to the abdomen
axillary pertaining to the armpits
coxal pertaining to the hip
deltoid pertaining to the deltoid muscle
inguinal pertaining to the groin
mammary pertaining to the breasts
pelvic pertaining to the pelvis
pubic pertaining to the pubis
sternal pertaining to the breastbone
thoracic pertaining to the chest
umbilical pertaining to the umbilicus (navel)
antecubital pertaining to the front of elbow
brachial pertaining to the arm
antebrachial pertaining to the forearm
carpal pertaining to the wrist
crural pertaining to the leg
digital pertaining to the fingers/toes
femoral pertaining to the thigh
manual pertaining to the hand
palmar pertaining to the palm
patellar pertaining to the kneecap
pedal pertaining to the foot
plantar pertaining to the sole of the foot
tarsal pertaining to the ankle
acromial pertaining to the acromion
dorsal pertaining to the back
gluteal pertaining to the buttocks
lumbar pertaining to the lower back
nuchal pertaining to the neck
olecranla pertaining to the elbow
perineal pertaining to the perineum
popliteal pertaining to the back of the knee
sacral pertaining to the sacrum
scapular pertaining to the scapula
sural pertaining to the calf
vertebral pertaining to the spine
anterior front
ventral belly/front side
posterior back
dorsal back of body
superior upward
cephalad toward the head
inferior downward
caudad toward the tail
medial middle, midline
lateral side
ipsilateral same side
contralateral opposite side
unilateral one side
bilateral two sides
superficial on the surface of the body (external)
deep away from the surface of the body (internal)
proximal near the origin
distal far from the origin
dextrad toward the right
sinistrad toward the left
afferent carrying toward a structure
efferent carrying away from a structure
supine lying on one's back
prone lying on one's belly
epi- above, upon
hyper- excessive, above
hypo- deficient, below
mid- middle
trans- through, across
ant anterior
AP anteroposterior
CT computed tomography
inf inferior
lat lateral
LLQ left lower quadrant
LUQ left upper quadrant
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
PA posteroanterior
PET positron emission tomography
pos posterior
RLQ right lower quadrant
RUQ right upper quadrant
sup superior
midsaggital plane separates the body into equal right and left halves
frontal (coronal) plane separates the body into front and back
transverse (cross-section) plane separates the body horizontally into upper part and lower part
oblique plane separates the body at a slanted angle
Created by: daytonacollege