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Chromosomal Structure

When two strands of DNA are twisted around each other this occurs Supercoiling
DNA plus protein Chromatin
Highly condensed, darkly staining chromatin. Tend to be transcriptionally inactive Heterochromatin
Less dense, lightly staining, transcriptionally active chromatin Euchromatin
Proteins that form octameric complexes, which eukaryotic DNA wraps around Histones
How many major types of histones are there Six
What histones binds the linker regions between teh octamers H1
What charge do histones carry Positive
Does histone binding occur through the cell cycle Yes
Histone octamers and associated DNA, not including the linker regions Nucleosomes
There are ... types of histones in an octorm, ... copies of each type Four, Two
What is the DNA that wraps around an octomer called Core DNA
What are the stretches of DNA between octormers called Linker DNA
Nucleosomes coil around each other to form hallow tubes known as Solenoids
Chromosomal condensation during prophase also involves solenoids tangling in complex patterns to form the mitotic (or meiotic) chromosomes Solenoid Tangling
The second most abundant class of chromatin protein Scaffold proteins
The most abundant class of chromatin protein Histones
These proteins probably tie the solenoids together to form the condensed, mitotic chromosomes, They also maintian supercoiling. Scaffold protiens
One identified scaffold protein is Topoisomerase II
The dark staining regions, which are beleived to consit of more tighly packed DNA seen on chromosomes Bands
The region of a chromosome that is bound to the mitotic spindle Centromere
Chromosomes are categorized based on the position of their Centromeres
Central centromeres Metacentric
Off center centromeres Submetacentric
Centromeres towards the end Acrocentric
Centromeres at the ends (do ont occur in humans) Telocentric
Chromosomes are divided by the centromere into two regions know as Arms
The shorter arm of a chromosome is call the ... while the longer arm is call the P arm, Q arm
The ends of chromosomes Telomeres
These protect the chromosome ends from damage Telomeres
The number, size and banding patterns of all mitotic chromosomes Karyotypes
All DNA controlling the genetics of a cellular unit Genome
Created by: mhaynes