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T1 Cell Pathology

PATHO exam 1 review

Basic unit of the body Cell
groups of similar cells to perform similar functions Tissues
Tissues grouped together in different proportions Organs
Groups of organs functioning together Organ System
Integrated organ system Functioning Organism
contains genetic information, directs metabolic function of cells Nucleus
Content of the Nucleus Nucleoli
2 types of nucleic acid combined with protein DNA & RNA
nucleic acid contained in chromosomes DNA
Nucleic acid contained in nucleoli RNA
Central Dogma DNA-->mRNA--->Protein
Transcription takes place in the ? Nucleus
Translation takes place in the ? cytoplasm
mass of protoplasm with its various cytoplasm organelles, surrounded by a cell membrane, has a cytoskeleton Cytoplasm
cytoplasm is Hyaloplasm which has no definite _____ , and has a ____ ____ that separates the cytoplasm from extracellular sl Shape , Plasma Membrane
5 Cytoplasmic organelles mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes
Outer cell surface is called the ? Plasma Membrane
Plasma Membrane; Selectively permeable, with _____ charge electric
Plasma Membrane : is made up of Lipid bilayers with inserted_____ and____ Lipid, glycolipids , glycoproteins
______ is Brown pigment composed of oxidized lipids ,Accumulates in aging tissues (degradations product of lysosomes ) they are the ______ products of Autophagosomes and Heterophagosomes (secondary lysosomes) Lipofuscin, Undigested
Diffusion is the The movement of _____ _____ (solute) from a more _______ to a____ solution dissolved particles, concentrated, dilute
Osmosis The movement of_____ _____ from a more____ solution to a_____ solution water molecules, Dilute , concentrated
ActiveTransport is The transfer of a_____ across the cell membrane from a region of___ concentration to_____ concentration substance, low, higher
many metabolic processes depend on _____ ____ of ions and molecules Active transport
The process of Active Transport requires the cell to____ energy because the substance must move against a______ _____ expend, concentration gradient
moment of material into and out of cell : The ingestion of particles that are too large to pass across the cell membrane. Phagocytosis
moment of material into and out of cell : Ingestion of fluid rather than solid material Pinocytosis
Cellular swelling, bruise or a scratch are types of ____ cell injury Reversible
Cell death, (heart disease, stroke) is a type of ______ cell injury Irreversible
type of toxic cell injury ex) associated with heavy metals such as mercury, as by disrupting S-S bonds Direct toxin
type of toxic cell injury ex.)carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is metabolized in the liver to carbon trichloride (CCl3), which is more toxic Indirect toxin
type of cellular adaptation that Decrease in size of a cell, tissue, organ, or the entire body, Atrophy
type of cellular adaptation that enlarged size of the cells Hypertrophy
type of cellular adaptation that has an Increased number of cells in a tissue or organ Hyperplasia
type of cellular adaptation that Change from normal cells to a different cell . It is_____ if the causative factors are removed. Metaplasia, reversible
type of cellular adaptation that an increasing degree of disordered growth or maturation of the tissue (precedes to neoplasia(cancer cel)) Dysplasia
clinically defined as “brain death,” occurs when tissues undergo autolysis>(destruction of tissue or cell by there own enzyme) Somatic Death
Cell death occurs in two forms Necrosis & Apoptosis
localized death of cells or tissues in a living organism Necrosis
programmed death of single cells within a living organism Apoptosis
The Mitochondria is surrounded by a double ______, and have _____ on the inside, and is full of ______ enzymes membrane, cristae , oxidative (cytochrome oxidase)
Function of the Mitochondria ? Generates ATP
Function of the Ribosomes ("polysomes") synthesis _____ for____ purpose proteins, internal
Functions of the Rough Endoplasmic reticulum (RER) synthesis of ____ for ____ proteins, export
The Smooth ER has _____ functions. such as _______ - which is the degradation of ____ , hormones, & _____ ( which organ does the degradation of DRUGS ? ) complex, Catabolism, drugs, nutrients, THE LIVER
The Smooth ER functions in synthesis of what type of hormones ? Steroid (estrogen,test, progesterone)
The Smooth ER is prominent in the ___ , in _____ cells, & _____ cells liver, adrenal, Leydig
Lysosomes are _____-bound digestive organelles , there are primary and secondary lysosomes (2 types of secondary heterophagosomes, autophagosomes) membrane
Lysosomes give rise to residual bodies ("______") which is a Degradation product which functionin degradation by to ____ particles that enter the cell lipfuscin, Destroy
moment of material into and out of cell : the cytoplasm flows around the cell and the cytoplasmic processes fuse , _____ the ____ within a ___ in the cytoplasm of the cell engulfing, partical, vacuole
3 ways cells interact Endocrine, Autocrine, Paracrine
method of cell interaction with glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream Endocrine
method of cell interaction where hormone secreted must be adjacent to other cell to be effective ? Paracrine
method of cell interaction where hormone secreted only has an effect on the cell its secreted from (its self) regulated by the hypothalamus Autocrine
Hypoxia/anoxia is a type of cell injury when the cell is deficient in _____ , toxins, microbes, inflammation and immune reactions & oxygen radicals are all causes of cell injuries oxygen
2 types Microbial Pathogens Bacteria and viruses
which produces toxins bacteria or viruses Bacteria
type of microbial pathogen that kills cells from within also has a ____ cytopathic effect and a ____ cytopathic effect Virus, Direct , Indirect
Atrophy can be _____ & predictable ex) atrophy of thymus after puberty, gain Physiologic
Atrophy can be ______ - caused by lack of nutrition, chronic item, denervation, inactivity Pathologic
In hypertension there is ______ of the heart, Hypertrophy
Hypertrophy of ____ ____ in body builder skeletal muscles
Endometrial _______ caused by the action of estrogen Benign prostatic __SAME__ in elderly men hyperplasia
chronic irritation of cigarette smoke causing ciliated pseudostratified epithelium to be replaced by squamous epithelium is an example of what type of cell adaptation ? Metaplasia
______ dysplasia is a matured tissue(neoplasm) that is a result of Human Papiloma virus (HPV) Cervical
Naturally,the sequence is_____ to_____ to ______. This is seen in development of uterine cervix (cervical cancer) and respiratory tract neoplasms(lung cancer) metaplasia, dysplasia, neoplasia
when Apoptosis happens the ____ undergoes condensation and fragmentation (explodes) nucleus
4 types of necrosis (CLCF) (bleeding, water, Cheese, Butter) Coagulative necrosis, Liquefactive necrosis, Caseous necrosis, Fat necrosis
Type of Necrosis : that refers to light microscopic alterations in a dead cell. Coagulative necrosis
The appearance of the necrotic cell has traditionally been termed (coagulative necrosis) due to its similarity to coagulation(solid to fluid/gel) of____ that occurs upon_____. proteins, heating
3 morphologic changes of Coagulative necrosis (PKK) Pyknosis, Karyorrhexis, Karyolysis
First Type of morphologic change of coagulative necrosis when the Nucleus becomes smaller and stains deeply basophilic as chromatin clumping continues Pyknosis
Second Type of morphologic change of coagulative necrosis when Pyknotic nucleus breaks up into many smaller fragments scattered (nuclear dust). Karyorrhexis
Third Type of morphologic change of coagulative necrosis when Pyknotic nucleus may be extracted from the cell due to enzymatic digestion Karyolysis
are Nuclear changes (PKK) in coagulative necrosis reversible ? No, they are Irreversible
Hall mark of irreversible cell injury ? membrane damage
in Coagulative necrosis:______ arises from ischemic (inadequate blood supply to organ) condition of the limb and the resulting necrosis Gangrene
Gangrene is localized ____ and_____ of body tissue due to poor circulation or bacterial infection death, decomposition
2 types of Gangrene Dry and Wet
which type of gangrene has NO BLOOD or puss Dry Gangrene (ex. frostbite)
which type of gangrene has blood, or pus (bacterial infection if has puss) Wet gangrene
swollen area within body tissue containing an accumulation of puss abscess
Type of Necrosis : the Rate of dissolution of the necrotic cells is faster than the rate of repair. this causes formation of The cavity of abscess Liquefactive necrosis
Type of Necrosis : characteristic of tuberculosis (TB). Caseous necrosis
in Caseous necrosis The lesions of TB are compact aggregates of_____ and other inflammatory cells known as______. macrophages, granulomas
in caseous necrosis Debris from the dead cells are (color) and soft. & It resembles clumpy cheese characteristics. grayish white
Type of necrosis : affects adipose tissue and most commonly results from pancreatitis or trauma. Fat Necrosis
Fat necrosis appears as an irregular, chalky___ area embedded in otherwise normal adipose tissue white
Traumatic fat necrosis is common in the ___ where it may be mistaken for____. breast, cancer
2 TYPES OF CALCIFCATION Dystrophic calcification & Metastatic calcification
Dystrophic calcification is when____ tissue attracts calcium salts and becomes____ (examples atherosclerosis of arteries, damaged heart valves) necrotic, calcified
Metastatic calcification : hypercalcemia (__ calcium) followed by deposition of calcium salts in____ tissues High, normal
hyperparathyroidism (hyper active parathyroid gland) (gland that makes calcium ) is the most common cause of ? hypercalcemia
Created by: osabdelr