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WVSOM GI secretions

GI secretions

Does osmolality increase or decrease with an increase in flow rate increase
With a low flow rate do you have more or less time to modify slaiva more
Which flow rate would give you the highest pH, high rate or low rate high rate
Are both parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems used in the salivary secretion Yes
What does aldosterone do to Na reabsorbtion and K secretion increases both
What does ADH do to Na reabsorbtion increases it
If you increase cell activity, what else will you accomplish increaseing vasodilator metabolites
In the salivary duct, which ions or compounds are being absorbed into the duct HCO3- and K+
In the salivary duct, which ions are being reabsorbed into the interstitium Na, H20 and Cl-
What nuerotransmitter does the sympathetic nervous system use to create salivary secretions NE
What enzyme is released by ductal cells that eventually causes increased capillary permiability and vasodilation Kallikrein
What is the main contributer to H+ concentration in the lumen of the stomach Proton Pump
Does the proton pump require ATP Yes
What is the ion exchanged with H+ in the proton pump K (potassium)
The Cl that is excreted aling with the H+ originally comes from where Interstitial Space
What is the mechanism that bring Cl into the parietal cell to be able to be excreted into the lumen Cl/HCO3- exchanger
What is the shift of HCO3- from the partieal cell into the interstial space refered to as Alkaline tide
Where does the H+ in the parietal cell come from dissociation from H20 or H2CO3
High secretory rate yeilds high or low amounts of K+ and Na+ LOW
Which molecules act to stimulate the parietal cell in the direct pathway ACh, gastrin, abd histimine
What molecules work to stimulate the parietal cell in the indirect pathway ACh, gastrin, and histimine, but keep in mind the ECL cell is also stimulated so that it secretes histimine to activate the parietal cell
What are PPI's Proton pump inhibitors. Work to limit acid sectretion in the stomach
What mechanisms/treatments are avaiable for hyperacidity vagoitmy, antacids, PPI's, H2 blockers (zantec and tagament,
What is the main nerve in the cephalic phase VAGUS VAGUS VAGUS
Name the four physiological events of cephalic phase 1. Vagus stimulates parietal cell (ACh)2. Vagus stimulates G-cell (GRP) (stimulates ECL and parietal)3. Stimulates ECL cell (ACh)4. Stimulates D-Cell (ACh, inhibits somatostatin)
On what cell is there an inhibiting of an inhibitor D-cell
What causes excretion of H+ by the parietal cell in the gastric phase distention of food in the stomach, local and long relflexes, and finally stimulation of parietal cells
What percent of acid secretion does the gastric phase account for 50-60%
What stimulates the release of H+ from parietal cells in the intestinal cell Protein digestion prducts, entero-oxyntin, absorbed amino acids and gastrin
What percent of H+ secretion does the intestinal phase make up 5-10%
What does somatostatin inhibit G-cells and parietal cells
What stimulates secretin acid
Fatty acids cause the release of what protein that acts to inhibit g-cells and parietal cells GIP
How else do fatty acids work to inhibit the parietal cell through local relexes
Name two other minor inhibitors of parietal cell CCK and PGE2
What causes pesinogen to be converted to pepsin H+ or acid
High levels of what can inhibit Gastrin Acid
What is PUD peptic ulcer disease, defined as a break in the mucosal surface >5mm
What are the two functions of the mucosal layer in the stomach 1. Diffusion barrier for H+2. Traps HCO3-
An inflammatory response in the stomach may be caused by what H+ leaking through the mucosal layer and cause the release of histimine
How does H. Pylori produce an inflammation in the stomach Inhibits somatostatin and makes excess NH4
Intrinsic factor is essential for the uptake of what vitamin B12
What is the only essential secretion of the stomach IF (intrinsic factor)
Acinar cells secrete what pancreatic enzymes
What are the four general types of enzymes Amylases, lipases, proteases, nucleases
What do ductal and centroacinar cells secrete Na+ and HCO3-
In the pancreatic ductal cell, what is the main exchanger used to move HCO3- into the lumen HCO3-/Cl- exchanger
Where is 90% of the HCO3- in the pancreatic juice coming from plasma
How is cAMP linked to secretin Secretin activates adenylate cyclase, which releaes cAMP. This causes PKA to phosphorylate CFTR channels and release Cl- into the lumen
In the pancreas, H+ is moved from the ductal cell to the blood by what mechanism Na+/H+ exchanger
In the pancreas, the flood of H+ into the blood is called what? Acid tide
What pulls Na+ through tight junctions in the pancreatic ductal cells negative lumen
What does the rate of HCO3- depend on The availability of luminal Cl-
What follows as Na+ moves down its gradient H20
The faliure of the CFTR channel to function results in what occuring The lack of Na+ being pulled into the lumen and thus a lack of H20. This causes thick secretiosn which become stuck in the lungs and unabel to be moved out
Pancreatic secretion has an osmolality similar to what plasma
What are the three controllers fo pancreatic secretion CCK, secretin, and vagovagal reflexes
What effect does the sympathetic nervous system have on pancreatic secretion None or inhibitory
What neurotranmitter is used to cause secretions from the ductal and acinar cells ACh
In what phase does distention cause vagovagal reflexes to occur Gastric
What are the three main "actors" in the intestinal phase CCK, Vagus, and secretin
What action does CCK have in the intestinal phase causes secretions from the ductal and acinar cells
which two cell types will secretin inhibit G-cells and Parietal cells
During the intestinal phase, the products from protein and lipid breakdown do what stimulate a vagovagal relfex to trigger acinar cells to secrete
An absence of Cl- exchanger channels on the apical side of the ductal cell will result in a loss of secretion of what HCO3-
Where are primary bile acids made Liver
What process takes place to change primary bile acids to secondary bile acids dehydroxylation (makes bile acids more soluable)
synthesis of bile acids help to rid what compound from the body cholesterol
At the pH of the intestines, are conjugated bile acids water or fat soluable water
What structures do bile acids form around fats micelles
if you have a large return of bile acids to the liver, does the rate of synthesis increase, decrease or stay the same decreases
Deconjugated/dehydroxylated bile salts are absorbed actively or passively passivley
Which type of bile acid is absorbed actively conjugated or more hydrophilic ones
What percentage of bile salts are returned to the liver 90%
If you increase the rate of return of bile salts to the liver, does the rate of release of secretin increase, decrease or stay the same increase
While HCO3- is being secreted, which ions/electrolytes are being absorbed and secreted Na+, Cl- and H20
Does billirubin become conugated or uncojugated in the liver conjugated
Is conugated billirubin direct or indirect direct
Created by: lowryc