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Canadian Culture

Define culture: shared patterns of behaviour, interactions, or cognitive constructs learned through socialization
What are some elements of culture? values, symbols, or interpretations used to distinguish ourselves from others
Elite - Mass divide: Elites appreciate "high brow" culture (ballet, opera, etc...), Masses prefer "low brow" cultural endeavors (singing, performing at home)
Why did culture develop? A diversion from the struggles of daily life
Why were newspapers so important in the 19th century? Newspapers were a 'lifeline' for people living on the frontier. They fed curiosity, provided information, and broke up monotony. Because they were so popular they also increased the desire for education and increased the need for schools
When was the Ministry of Education (Ontario) created? 1870s
Why was music culturally significant in the 19th century? In urban society, music was something you went to see. In rural communities is was a socially desirable talent which people shared. There was a blending of performer and audience.
Why was singing in particular so popular in the 19th century? It required no literacy or education to do, and was cheap. You could also work and sing (and the folk songs throughout Canada reflect the local industry)
How many folk songs were recorded in Quebec? Over 10,000
What is the British North America Act? The BNA Act 1867 created the 'Dominion of Canada' (chose to use 'dominion' and not 'kingdom' or any such word because we didn't want to challenge the USA)
Which provinces were part of confederation in 1867? Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick
When did the other provinces join? 1871 British Columbia, 1873 Prince Edward Island, 1905 Alberta and Saskatchewan, 1949 Newfoundland
Who was Canada's first Prime Minister? John A MacDonald
Why is Canada a federalist state? A federalist state provides provincial autonomy.
Why did MacDonald NOT want a federalist state? MacDonald saw the federalist state as a problem because of the crisis the system caused during the American Civil War. He tried to set up the federation so that the system would eventually be phased out.
Why were health and education given provincial jurisdiction? In 1867, they were not considered an important part of running a country. The BNA Act also leaves 'residual powers' (anything not in the document) in the hands of the federal gov
Why was the train significant for Canadian development? After the American Civil War, the USA had a huge standing army. There was a fear Canada would lose the West if they did not have a way to connect the country. The train provided an essential link across the country.
When was the trans-Atlantic telegraph laid? 1866 (allowed people to get news from Europe within 24hrs of an event)
How was the telegraph significant for Canadians? Before the telegraph (which followed the railway stations) Canadians in Ontario trying to reach people in BC would have to mail a letter through the USA and back into Canada (pay international postage). The telegraph made letters cheap and fast
What is the Orange Lodge? Ultra-protestant (anti-catholic) group designed to protect Ontario from the papal conspiracy. July 12 was the 'orange parade' to celebrate English victory over Catholic Irishmen. 1952 was the first time a mayor of Toronto was not part of the Orange Lodge
What is a Temperance Lodge? Advocated for the highly regulated (or outright ban) of alcohol. It was designed to solve the social problems of domestic abuse at a time when the law did not recognize assault in marital unions and divorces were difficult to attain.
Why is baseball culturally significant in rural areas (in 19th century)? Baseball increased communication and maintain traditional social structures in small towns. Instilled values of sportsmanship, and re-branded communities with small-town values, morals, fair-play etc.. (Urban were ignorant and arrogant)
Why is celebrity culture significant in 19th century? Renowned fame became more important than fame by birth or title. This threatened the elite families. They began bringing celebrities into their social circles to feed off this fame. They would sponsor celebrities and performances for the good press.
What was the significance of the ability to publish photographs in the early 1900s? "The Age of the Image." Questions whether or not the same people could have been elected in the photo era v. the pre-photo era
Why were elites so intent on educating the masses? Education keeps people from being rowdy, if they are educated they will be better citizens. Elites felt a sense of responsibility to do good for their communities.
What are some of the questions Canadians were asking themselves in the 19th century? What kind of Canada do we want? Do we want independence from Britain? Do we want continentalism? How could Canada play a role in the imperial framework?
What is Imperialism? 1830s-1900s Great Britain dominated most of the world. "The sun never sets on Great Britain" (anywhere in the world at any time it was sunny on British soil)
Why was imperialism significant for Canada? English Canada had a fondness for the imperial structure. It made them feel special, exceptional, superior. They felt they were part of a 'benevolent empire'. French Canada felt threatened by assimilation and the promotion of anglo-saxon superiority
What is Empire Day and why is it significant? Empire Day was celebrated in English Canada and supported the values imported from Britain (family, piety, respect for authority etc...). These beliefs were perpetuated by teachers, preachers, books, and other literature (poems, songs, etc...)
What is the "national policy"? An economic policy followed until 1984, which advocated for protectionism. It was part of John A MacDonald's policies (also included the creation of a national railroad). The lack of free trade may have created a lazy entrepreneurial class.
Why was literacy and education important? In 1861 28% of Nova Scotians were illiterate. Parents knew it would be important for their children's future so were ok with spending their tax dollars on education. Education was increased gradually.
Why are libraries important to Canadian communities? Once people were literate, their skills would go to waste unless they had the opportunity to access literature to expand their knowledge, and practice their skills.
What is the significance of a Mechanic's Institute? It was designed to provide culture and education to the working man. They were very popular (300 in Ontario alone). Despite their desire to be for workers, they often provided middle class entertainment to the middle class. Not a lot of mechanics attend
What are the significance of a Literary Society? Book clubs & Reading circles, they were about self improvement (to the betterment of society). Especially popular because women could participate.
What were the problems that faced the elites as they tried to promote culture among the masses? 1. working class doesn't have time for culture 2. elite activities were designed with other elites in mind 3. enforced rules of behaviour that intimidated or didn't translate well with the masses 4. people preferred pop culture to high culture
What are some examples of working class cultural institutions? Knights of Labour (a secret society - functioned as a union. Provided a sense of community)
What impact did economies of scale have on Canadian cultural development? It discouraged Canadian publishing, it was cheaper to make lots of copies in the USA than to make a few in Canada
What does the Canada First movement entail? 1. Canada needed to be more than a political union 2. Public info needed to be bigger ideas 3. the good of the dominion above individuals/provinces 4. need articulate vision of Canada
Why is architecture so important for cultural development? Great buildings symbolize the aspirations people have in a society. This isn't where we are but it is where we would like to be. Works of art in their own right.
What is wrong with a nationalist approach to cultural development? There is a tendency to overpraise works because they are Canadian, rather than on a level of artistic merit. Mutually reinforcing positivism
Why is the Eaton's Centre culturally significant? The rise of the department store, all in one shopping (hugely convenient). Led to the portrayal of women as the irrational shopper.
What happened in 1891? Sir John A MacDonald died
What was the cultural significance of MacDonald's death? To commemorate his death Ottawa, Toronto, Montreal, Kingston and Hamilton decided to have monuments made in his honor. Only 2/5 were made by Canadian sculptures. The others were made by British sculptures
What problems did Canadian postage regulations cause for Canadian culture? Domestic postage costs $0.04/lb and USA-Canada cost $0.01. This is on top of the economies of scale the USA can produce more for cheaper. It meant that Canadian magazines suffered from highly competitive American products
Created by: alentini