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KMC CH 18 Rev/Nat

KMC CH 18 Revolution and Nationalism

QuestionAnswer
Congress of Vienna Met in 1814 to restore the balance of power in Europe after the defeat of Napoleon
Liberalism Proposes a democratic form of government, a society based on liberty, equality, and the General Will of the people
Holy Alliance Failed proposal of Czar Alexander I of Russia which sought to ensure charity and peace
Concert of Europe Established by Metternich to dismantle the reforms in Europe brought about by Napoleon
"Carbonari" "The Charcoal Burners," the secret Italian society which led a successful revolt against the Bourbon king of Naples
Francois Rene de Chateaubriand Caused a Catholic revival by writing "The Genius of Christianity," which defended Catholic dogma against liberal and atheistic attacks
Social consequences of industrialization on family life Family members apart for long hours, & employment necessary for EVERY family member; urban life cramped & unsanitary; life expectancy low due to dangerous working conditions & rampant disease; 20% of mine workers were under 10 years of age
Manchester School of Economics These items are pertinant to MSE: Treated people like machines; "iron law of wages;" "laissez-faire" capitalism; Adam Smith & Thomas Malthus
Roman Catholic Relief Act of 1829 Catholics were emancipated & could hold Parliamentary seats; Irish activist Daniel O'Connell became the first Irishman to represent his people in London; O'Connell became a major leader in the House of Commons
Results of the Revolutions of 1848 in Europe In France, the king fled, Louis-Napoleon seized total power & the cultural divide between rural & urban French increased; in Italy, Pio Nono fled & revolutionaries controlled Rome for a year; in Germanophone countries, national unity failed
Pius IX, "Pio Nono" Pope who was popular because he was young & poor; he visited hospitals & schools & made improvements to the city; he created a lay assembly to help rule; he established an agricultural institute; (All of the above!)
Anti-clericalism Hostility and harassment aimed at priests & nuns
Ultramontanism Literally, "over the mountains," 19th century Catholics who emphasized the centrality & authority of the pope over that of their local clergy
Ven. John Henry Cardinal Newman Founder & leader of the Oxford Movement, he in turn brought many English converts to the Catholic Church
Bernadette Soubirous At a grotto in Massabielle at Lourdes, France, Mary appeared to her saying, "I am the Immaculate Conception."
First Vatican Council Council which condemned modern-day materialism, atheism, and declared papal infallibility
"Quanta Cura" and its "Syllabus of Errors" Encyclical in which Pope Bl. Pius IX attacked socialism, Gallicanism, rationalism & the separation of Church and State
Results of Franco-Prussian War of 1870 Germanophone territories united under Otto von Bismarck; Vittorio Emmanuelle conquered the Papal States; First Vatican Council disbanded but was never officially closed
Law of Guarantees Italian law by which Pope Bl. Pius IX lost the Papal States; in response he declared himself a "prisoner of Vatican"
How Prusssians sought to eliminate Catholic influence in southern German states Tried to starve Catholics to death; enlisted all Catholic young men into the army; passed a law that the religion of the father was the religion of the child; imprisoned recalcitrant priests & bishops
Kulturkampf Bismarck's policy of ridding Germany of Catholicism
Imperialism Process by which nations expand their interests throughout the world, establishing colonies in Asia & Africa
Secular Humanism Intellectual movement which is characterized by a mechanical understanding of the human person
Natural Selection Biological theory proposed by Charles Darwin, which was later used by social scientists to interpret social phenomena
Communism Political system in which the Proletariat holds all wealth and property in common, & the government provides everything that everyone needs
Sigmund Freud Psychologist whose description of human consciousness reduces the person to an animal whose objective is sexual contentment
Leo XIII First pope in over a millennium and a half who did not exercise temporal power; this allowed him sufficient time to write a staggering 87 encyclicals
Inscrutabili Dei "On the Evils of Society," encyclical which summarizes the evils which the revolutionary governments had visited upon society during the previous 100 years, & states that the Church is the only hope for restoring society
Immortale Dei "On the Christian Constitution of States," encyclical which does not encourage any particular form of government, but encourages Catholics to participate in the newly formed democracies in order to infuse government with Christian virtue
Rerum Novarum "On Capital and Labor," encyclical on social justice which states that acquisition of private property is the right of every human being
Created by: MAGISTRA56 on 2008-11-19



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