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Carnegie Chem enzyme

review for chemistry quiz on enzymes MA fall 2014

what function do enzymes play in the body? Catalyst they speed up the rate of chemical reactions in the body needed in very small amount, not changed
enzymes are which type of substance? Proteins
what things can be need your enzymes? Heat, strong acid or base, vigorous shaking, ultraviolet radiation (think hair, it's made of proteins.)
What is a substrate? Material acted upon by the enzyme
how are enzymes named? the first part is the name of the substrate second tells what kind of reaction and ends in "ase"
where are enzymes normally found? Found in intact cells, normally very low levels in the serum
why would you find enzymes in the serum? Cells have ruptured to release enzymes into bloodstream
what does Amylase do? digestive enzyme breaks down starch begins in your mouth
What tissue is Amylase found in? Pancreas and Salivary gland
Amylase is increased in what diseases? Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis. (rises 4-12 hours after the onset of pain, peaks at 24 hours. Normal = 25-125 U/L. 20-40 times the normal range)
What does Lipase do?
What tissue is Lipase found in?
Lipase is increased in what diseases? Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis
Which enzymes are Hydrolases? Amylase, Lipase, Alkaline Phosphatase, & Acid Phosphatase
Which enzymes are Transferases? SGOT/AST, SGPT/ALT, GGTP, & CPK
Which enzyme is Oxido-Reductase? LDH
(ALKP or ALP) Alkaline Phosphatase is active in what pH? High pH - Optimum pH 10
Alkaline Phosphatase is increased in what disease? bone, liver - cirrhosis, hepatitis - ANY liver disease, healing fracture, pregnant women 3rd tri
Acid phosphatase is active in what pH? Low pH, Optimum pH =5
Acid Phosphatase is increased in what kind of cancer? Prostatic cancer with metastasis to other parts of body
Acid Phosphatase is found in which tissue? RBC, platelets, prostatic fluid
SGOT/AST is increased in which disease? Liver, Heart, and Muscle disease
SGPT/ALT is increased in only what disease? Liver disease (cirrhosis, carcinoma)
GGTP (GT or GGT) is increased in which diseases? Liver and pancrease disease
CPK (CK) is found in which tissues? heart, muscle, brain, and lung
When is CPK fastest rising? During an MI (Myocardial Infarction). Usually 4-8 hours after onset of pain.
LDH is found in which tissue? present in almost all tissues
LDH remains elevated longest during what event? Myocardial Infarction
How are LDH isoenzymes separated? electrophoresis - 5 fractions (types)
Why are LDH hemolyzed specimens not acceptable? high concentration in RBC (200x the plasma level)
Which 2 enzymes are ordered together to evaluate pancreatic function? amylase and lipase
Which tests are in a cardiac profile? CPK or CK, Troponin I, Troponin T
Which tests are in a liver profile? ALK or ALP, AST, ALT, GGTP (GT, GGT), LDH
Which is the most sensitive of the liver enzymes? GGTP (Gin and Tonic enzyme, hehehe)
What are the 3 isoenzymes of CPK? CK1 (BB), CK2 (MB), and CK3 (MM)
Which tissue is CK1 (BB) from? Brain and Lung
Which tissue is CK2 (MB) from? Heart
Which tissue is CK3 (MM) from? Muscle
How does LDH behave during an MI? Remains elevated the longest. slowest rising. returns to normal in 10-14 days.
What is the significance of Triponin I? comes from heart; 4 hours after patient comes to ER it increases and equals an MI and cardiac cell destruction
What do CPK or CK, Triponin I and Triponin T have in common? they are all abnormal proteins
Where does Triponin T come from? Heart and Skeletal
What type of enzyme is ALT? it's a Transaminase found only in the liver
Created by: ma2b