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GastroIntestinal Reverse-Defs

small intestine a continuation of the GI tract responsible for absorpition. consists fo the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
epiglottis a flap of tissue covering the trachea, which prevents food and liquids from entering the airway
sigmoid colon a flexure of the colon which joins the descending colon and the rectum
cholelith a gallstone
ulcer a lesion of the skin or mucous membrane which frequently develops in the duodenum or stomach
esophagus a muscular canal which extends from the pharynx to the stomach
stomach a sac-like structure in the abdominal cavity, responsible for digestion of food
occult blood a test in which stool samples are collected to determine gastrointestinal bleeding
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, most commonly as a result of chronic liver disease
hernia abnormal protrusion of an organ or tissue through the structure that normally contain it
achlorhydric absence of hydrochloric acid in the stomach
colon also called the large intestine; it is divided into four portions and is responsible for absorption and elimination
stoma an artificial opening, in this case, one from the bowl through the abdominal wall
bulimia an eating disorder characterized by binge eating, purging, and vigorous exercise
gallbladder an organ below the liver which stores and empties bile through its ducts into the small intestine
pancreas an organ which uses ducts to provide exocrine secretions to the duodenum to aid in digestion
esophagojejunostomy anastomosis of the esophagus and jejunum
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to a malfunction of the sphincter muscle at the inferior portion of the esophagus
regurgitation back flowing, as in the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RGB) bariatric surgery involves stapling the stomach to decrease size and shorten the jejunum and connect to small stomach, causing the base of duodenum leading from the nonfunctioning portion of stomach to form a Y, that decreases pathway of food
vertical banded gastroplasty bariatric surgery that involves vertical stapling of the upper stomach near the esophagus to reduce it to a small pouch and insertion of a band that restricts food consumption and delays its passage from the pouch, causing a feeling of fullness
morbid obesity body mass index of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 pounds or more over ideal body weight
trachea cartilaginous tube which extends from the larynx to the bronchial tubes
mastication chewing-the first stage of digestion
sphincter circular band of muscle fibres that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening of the body
endoscopic (U.S.) combines endoscopy and ultrasound to examine and obtain images of the digestive tract and the surrounding tissue and organs
antidiarrheals control loose stools and relieve diarrhea by absorbing excess water in the bowel or slowing peristalsis in the intestinal tract
antiemetics control nausea and vomiting by blocking nerve impulses to the vomiting center of the brain
antacids counteract or neutralize acidity usually in the stomach
colostomy creation of an opening of a portion of the colon through the abdominal wall to its outside surface in order to divert fecal flow to a colostomy bag
antispasmodics decrease gastrointestinal spasms by slowing peristalsis and mobility throughout the GI tract
hepatomegaly enlargement of liver
obesity excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight
polypectomy excision of a polyp
fecalith fecal concretion
cecum first 2-3" of the large intestine
ascending colon first portion of the colon, extending from the cecum to the lower border of the liver
Crohn disease form of inflammatory bowel disease, usually of the ileum but possibly affecting any portion of the intestinal tract; also called regional enteritis
oral leukoplakia formation of white spots or patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue, lips, or cheek caused by primarily by irritation
halitosis foul-smelling breath
flatus gas in the GI tract; expelling of air from a body orifice, especially the anus
exocrine gland taht secretes its products through excretory ducts to the surface of an organ or tissue or into a vessel
liver function tests (LFT) group of blood tests that evaluate liver injury, liver function, and conditions often associated with the biliary tract
bariatric surgery group of procedures that treat morbid obesity, a condition which arises from severe accumulation of excess weight as fatty tissue, and the resultant health problems
ultrasonography high-frequency sound waves are directed at soft tissue and reflected as "echoes" to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure; also called ultrasound, sonography, and echo
computed tomography (CT) imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
dysphagia inability or difficulty in swallowing; also called aphagia
pylormyotomy incision of the longitudinal and circular muscles of the pylorus, which is used to treat hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
ulcerative colitis inflammation and ulceration of the innermost lining of the colon
diverticulitis inflammation of a sac-like bulge that may develop in the wall of the large intestine
appendicitis inflammation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection
dysentery inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon, that may be caused by ingesting water or food containing chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites, which results in bloody diarrhea
stomatitis inflammation of the mouth of the stomach
gastritis inflammation of the stomach
nasogastric intubation insertion of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach to relieve gastric distention by removing gas, food or gastric secretions; instil medication, food or fluids; or obtain a specimen for laboratory analysis
anorexia lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
rectum last portion of the GI tract which terminates at the anus
ileum lower division of the small intestine
magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) magnetic resonance imaging is used to visualize the biliary and pancreatic cuts and gallbladder in a noninvasive manner
bolus mass of masticated food ready to be swalloed
serum bilirubin measurement of the level of bilirubin in the blood
proctologist one who specializes in diseases of the colon, rectum, and anus
bilirubin orange-yellow pigment formed during destruction of erythrocytes that is take up by liver cells to form bilirubin and eventually excreted in the feces
triglycerides organic compound, a true fat, that is made of one glycerol and three fatty acids
hepatitis panel panel of blood tests that identify the specific virus-hepatitis A, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C - that is causing hepatitis by testing serum using antibodies to each of these antigens
melena passage of dark-coloured, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices
steatorrhea passage of fat in large amounts in the feces due to failure to digest and absorb it
pharynx passageway for air from the nose to the larynx and for food from the mouth to the esophagus
anorectal pertaining to both the anus and the rectum
celiac pertaining to the abdomen
buccal pertaining to the cheek
lingual pertaining to the tongue
cachexia physical wasting that includes loss of weight and muscle mass; commonly associated with AIDS and cancer
sialolithiasis presence of a stone in the salivary gland
cholelithiasis presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct
lithotripsy procedure for crushing a stone and eliminating its fragments surgically or using ultrasonic waves
eructation producing gas from the stomach, usually with a characteristic sound; also called belching
peristalsis progressive, wavelike movement that occurs involuntarily in hollow tubes of the body, especially the GI tract
gastrointestinal system provides the body with nutrients, electrolytes and water by ingestion, digestion, elimination and absorption
upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) radiographic examination of the esophagus stomach, and small intestine following oral administration of barium; also called barium swallow
lower gastrointestinal series (BE) radiographic examination of the rectum and colon following enema administration of barium into the rectum; also called lower GI series or barium enema
oral cholecystography (OCG) radiographic images taken of the gallbladder after administration of a contrast material containing iodine, usually in the form of a tablet
cholecystogram radiographic record of the gallbladder
liver scan radiographic visualization of the liver after injection of a radioactive substance
sialography radiologic examination of the salivary glands and ducts
choledocholithotomy removal of a gallstone through an incision of the bile duct
borborygmus rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestine
cirrhosis scarring and dysfunction of the liver caused by chronic liver disease
jejunum second division of the small intestine
transverse colon second portion of the colon that passes horizontally across the abdomen toward the spleen
obstipation severe constipation, which may be caused by an intestinal obstruction
colic spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ especially in the colon, accompanied by pain
pyloric stenosis stricture or narrowing of the pyloric sphincter at the outlet of the stomach, causing an obstruction that blocks the flow of food into the small intestine
ileorectal anastomosis surgical connection of the ileum and rectum after total colectomy, as is sometimes performed in the treatment of ulcerative colitis
intestinal anastomosis surgical connection of 2 portions of the intestines; also called enterostomy
ileostomy surgical formation of an opening from the ileum through the abdominal wall
enterostomy surgical formation of an opening from the small intestine through the abdominal wall
anastomosis surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
jejunorrhaphy surgical repair of the jejunum
cheiloplasty surgical repair of the lip
proctologist surgical repair or reconstruction of the rectum or colon
aerophagia swallowing air
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptom complex marked by abdominal pain and altered bowel function for which no organic cause can be determined; also called spastic colon
malabsorption syndrome symptom complex of the small intestine characterized by the impairment passage of nutrients, minerals, or fluids through intestinal villi into the blood or lymph
stool guaiac test that applies a substance called guaiac to a stool sample to detect the presence of occult blood in the feces; also called Hemoccult
stool culture test to identify microorganisms or parasites present in feces that are causing a gastrointestinal infection
oropharynx the central part of the throat between the soft palate and epiglottis
anal sphincter the constricting muscle at the anus which relaxes to allow passage of stool
enema the introduction of liquid into the rectum for cleansing the bowel and for stimulating evacuation of the bowels
liver the largest glandular organ which functions include: producing bile, removing glucose from the blood, and storing vitamins
laryngopharynx the lower portion of the pharynx which divides into the trachea and esophagus
anus the outlet of the rectum
absorption the passage of simple nutrients into the bloodstream
diarrhea the passage of unformed watery bowel movements
nasopharynx the portion of the throat above the soft palate and behind the nose
digestion the process by which food is broke down, mechanically and chemically in the GI tract and converted into an absorbable form that can be used by the body
descending colon third continuation of the colon which joins and forms the sigmoid colon
ingest to eat
elimination to pass urine from the bladder or stool from the bowel
laxatives treat constipation by increasing peristaltic activity in the large intestine or increasing water and electrolyte secretion into the bowl to induce defecation
cholangioma tumour of the bile duct or vessel
abdominal us ultrasound visualization of the abdominal aorta, liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, and bladder
duodenum uppermost division of the small intestine; receives secretions to aid in digestion
extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy use of shock waves as a noninvasive method to break up stones in the gallbladder or biliary ducts
endoscopy visual examination of a cavity or canal using a flexible fiberoptic instrument called an endoscope
gastrointestinal endoscopy visual examination of the gastrointestinal tract using a flexible fiberoptic instrument with a magnifying lens and a light source to identify abnormalities, including bleeding, ulcerations, and tumours
hematemesis vomiting of blood from bleeding in the stomach or esophagus
deglutition swallowing (the act of)
Created by: deyoht_kwa