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Humaism and More's Utopia

Who is Petrarch (1304-1374)? He began the notion of an age of rebirth. He viewed the Middle Ages as a dark age. He rejected "barbarous" Latin and irrelevant university learning of the high Middle Ages
What is the first element in the Renaissance History? Development of Nation State- Growth of larger, more powerful, more centralized states in England, France, Spain not Germany and Italy which were fragmented. Victory of Crown over nobility and towns larger states over smaller ones, added by new warfare
What was the new warfare? (second element) Gunpowder and new weapons such as cannons and guns
When and where invented gunpowder? (second element) In China about 11th century. (1326) it was realized it could be used as a propellant in a gun of some sort.
Explain more about the weapons (second element) (mid 15 cen.) Cannon was strong enough to demolish castles and strong city walls. In Middle Ages, the decisive arm was cavarly, (late 15th-16th cen.) infantry armed with 10 ft long pikes with iron heads and arquebuses (early guns) decisive arm.
How did the Spanish invent weapons? (second element) (1521) They introduced and improved the arquebuse, the musket.
What was the victory for the Spanish? (second element) Tactics of mutal dependence of pike and musket worked out by the Spanish general Fernando de Avalos, Marquis of Pescara (1520-1525) who wiped out French cavalry at Pavia (1525) capturing the French king. French lost 8,000 and Spanish 700
What was the Economic expansion of Europe? (third element) Until the mid-fourteenth century then economics depression which only ended between 1460-1500. Expansion again until early seventeenth century. Europe's population increased by about 50%, from 50 million to 80 million
What were the effects of the Economic expansion of Europe? (third element) Sense of rapid change and over-population. More important rapid rise in price of grain (between late 15th cen-16th) price increased four-fold. Food riots common in 17th cen. Beggars more common, and cities more noticeable.
Part 2 of the effects of the Economic expansion of Europe? (third element) Long sixteenth century essentially a boom age ended in a second quarter of 17th cent with demographic and economic reverses. Increase trade, industry; manorial landlord to capitalist farmer.
Part 3 of the effects of the Economic expansion of Europe? (third element) Rent-racking (increase rents) and enclosure land, to get rid of tenants either to farm land themselves with hired labor or raise sheep for wool. Great cities of Italy and Low Countries center for cloth production
Explain about the Development of Printing (In 1450s) in Mainz (Gutenberg, Fust and Schöffer). Paper and movable metal type make cheap printing
Explain about the Exploration and discoveries Portuguese voyages and conquests in Africa, India, and Spice Islands. Spanish: 1492 Columbus, Cortés conquest in Mexico; Pizarro conquest of Peru
Explain about the Classics and a new Historical Consciousness. Most classical works around but popularize Latin works little by predecessors and read differently, with new critical and historical awareness
Explain about Humanism- ("New Learning") The most pervasive cultural trait of the Renaissance. It began in 14th cent, Italy and spread to other parts of Christendom by end of 5th century.
What does the term "Humanism" mean? It was a late one. Invented by F.J. Niethammer (in 1808) but it is derived from much earlier Renaissance word, the Latin "humanista", referring to a teacher of the "studia humanitatis, the humanities
Created by: SEEawesome:)