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Upper Body

Muscles of the upper extremity and upper part of trunk

Pectoralis Major medial 2/3 of clavicle, length of sternum, upper 6 costal cartilages and aponeurosis of external obliques crest of greater tubercle (lateral lip of sulcus) N: Lateral and medial pectoral nerves B: branch of thoracoacromial adduct and medially rotate humerus, draws scapula anterior and inferior, flex arm and extend flexed arm
Serratus Anterior superior 8-9 ribs costal surface of medial border of scapula N: long thoracic nerve B: lateral thoracic & thoracoadorsal protracts scapula, rotates lateral angle upwards, keeps medial border close to thoracic wall, depress scapula
Rhomboid Minor inferior part of ligamentum nuchae & spinous processes of C7 to T1 medial border of scapula (at base of spine) N: dorsal scapular nerve B: branches from transverse cervical artery retraction & elevation of the scapula; assists in downward rotation of glenoid cavity
Rhomboid Major spinous processes of T2 - T5 lower portion of medial border of scapula (inferior to minor) N: dorsal scapular B: branches from transverse cervical artery elevation & retraction of scapula (same time) and downward rotation of glenoid cavity
Subclavius costal cartilage of 1st rib inferior surface of clavicle (middle 1/3) N: nerve to subclavius from brachial plexus B: branch of thoracoacromial artery depress clavicle & help raise 1st rib when clavicle raises; protects subclavian artery when clavicle fractures
Deltoid (anterior) lateral 1/3 of clavicle; (posterior) spine of scapula; (lateral) acromion deltoid tuberosity N: axillary B: deltoid branch of thoracoacromial & ant./post. circumflex humeral artery (anterior) medial rotation & flexion of humerus (posterior) lateral rotation & extension of humerus (lateral) abduct arm
Latissimus Dorsi lower 6 thoracic, lumbar, & sacral spinous processes; inferior 3/4 ribs and post crest of ilium floor of intertubecular groove N: thoracodorsal B: thoracodorsal extend; medially rotate; and adduct arm
Teres Major posterior surface of inferior angle of scapula medial lip of intertubercular sulcus N: lower subscapular B: branch of subscapular, posterior circumflex humeral arteries adduction & medial rotation of arm; with resistance helps lat. with extension
Teres Minor upper 2/3 of the dorsal surface of lateral border of scapula greater tubercle N: axillary B: branch of subscapular; posterior circumflex humeral artery laterally rotates humerus; keeps head of humerus in place
Infraspinatus infraspinatus fossa greater tubercle N: suprascapular B: circumflex scapular lateral rotation of humerus; keeps head of humerus in place
Supraspinatus dorsal surface of scapula above spine upper part of greater tubercle N: suprascapular nerve B: suprascapular artery abducts humerus
Subscapularis subscapular fossa crest of lesser tubercle N: upper & lower subscapular B: subscapular artery medial rotation of humerus; prevents anterior dislocation of humerus head
Sternocleiodomastoid sternum, medial 1/3 of clavicle mastoid process N: accessory nerve turns face towards opposite side; (uni) flex neck towards side of muscle; (bi) flex neck; raise clavicle & sternum to assist breathing
Coracobrachialis coracoid process anteriomedial surface of middle of humerus N: musculotaneous B: brachial artery flexion & adduction of arm at glenohumeral joint
Biceps Brachii (long) supraglenoid tubercle (short) coracoid process of scapula radial tuberosity N: musculotaneous B: brachial artery flex forearm at elbow, supination, flex glenohumeral joint (long) abduction during lateral rotation, (short) resists dislocation
Brachialis distal half of anterior humerus coronoid process and ulnar tubersity N: musculotaneous B: brachial artery flexion of forearm at elbow in any position
Triceps Brachii (long) infraglenoid tubercle, (lateral) posterior surface of humerus, superiolateral to radial groove, (medial) posterior surface of humerus, inferiomedial to radial groove proximal end of olecranon process N: radial nerve B: deep brachial artery extension of forearm at elbow, (long) extension and adductio of arm at g-h joint
Brachioradialis (anterior) lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus and lateral intermuscular septum of arm lateral side of distal end of radius N: radial nerve B: radial artery flexion of forearm at elbow (thumb must be up)
Pronator Teres medial epicondyle and coronoid process of ulna lateral surface of radius (middle of shaft) N: branch of median B: ulnar & radial pronation, weak forearm flexor
Flexor Carpi Radialis common flexor tendon (medial epicondyle) base of second metacarpal N: median B: ulnar & radial flex hand at wrist, may also produce abduction and assist with pronation
Palmaris Longus medial epicondyle palmar aponeurosis N: branch of median nerve B: ulnar artery helps with flexion of hand and tightens skin when gripping
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris common flexor tendon & proximal 2/3 of posterior surface of ulna pisiform bone N: ulnar B: ulnar good flexor of wrist and ulnar deviation (adduction)
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (humeroulnar) common fexor tendon and coronoid process, (radial) upper 1/2 of radius belowe radial tuberosity sides of palmar surafce of base of middle phalanx N: median nerve B: ulnar & radial flex middle phalanx of digits 2-5 and flexion of proximal phalanx, metacarpals and hand
Flexor Digitorum Profundus proximal 2/3 of ulna, adjacent interosseus membranes and aponeurosis base of distal phalanges of digits 2-5 N: median (2,3) and ulnar (4,5) B: ulnar, common interosseus arteries flexion of the distal phalanx, secondary flexor of proximal interphalangeal joint
Flexor Pollicis Longus middle half of the anterior surface of the radius and adjacent interosseus membrane base of distal phalanx of thumb N: median B: radial flex distal phalanx of thumb
Pronator Quadratus distal 1/2 of ulna distal part of radius N: median B: ulnar, radial, anterior interosseus arteries pronate forearm/hand with pronator teres
Anconeus lateral epicondyle lateral side of olecranon and adjacent ulna N: radial nerve B: medial collateral artery extension of forearm at elbow, stabilizes joint againt flexion and supination/pronation
Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus lateral suprepicondylar ridge of humerus, lateral intermuscular septum, and lateral epicondyle base of 2nd metacarpal N: radial B: radial extension of hand at wrist and radial deviation
Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis lateral epicondyle, intermuscular septa and antibrachial fascia base of 3rd metacarpal N: radial B: radial extension of hand at wrist
Extensor Digitorum lateral epicondyle, intermuscular septa, and antibrachial fascia bases of middle and distal phalanges N: radial B: recurrent interosseus extends all joints of fingers, but can only extend at IP when MP are not hyperextended
Extensor Digiti Minimi lateral epicondyle, intermuscular septa, and antibrachial fascia 5th middle and distal phalanges N: radial B: posterior interosseus extend and abduct 5th digit
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris lateral epicondyle, and more than 1/2 of proximal posterior border of ulna base of 5th metacarpal N: radial B: posterior interosseus aids in extension and ulnar deviation of hand at wrist
Supinator posteriolateral surface of ulna, lateral epicondyle, radial collateral ligament and annular ligament lateral and adjacent posterior & anterior aspects of radius below radial head N: radial B: recurrent interosseus supinates forearm
Extensor Indicis distal 1/3 of posterior surface of ulna and interosseus membrane distal end of 2nd metacarpal into extensor expansions of 2nd digit N: radial B: posterior interosseus extends 2nd digit at proximal IP and helps extend hand at wrist
Abductor Pollicis Longus posterior surface of ulna below supinator and interosseus membrane anteriolateral side of base of 1st metacarpal N: radial B: posterior interosseus abducts thumb and extends 1st MP joint after opposition
Extensor Pollicis Longus middle 1/3 of ulna and adjacent interosseus membrane distal phalanx N: radial B: posterior interosseus extends IP, MP, CM joints, extends both phalanges, makes up medial border of snuffbox
Extensor Pollicis Brevis radius and interosseus membrane below abductor longus proximal phalanx of thumb N: radial B: posterior interosseus extends proximal phalanx (at MP) and metacarpal of thumb (at CM)
Flexor Pollicis Brevis (superficial) flexor retinaculum and trapezium, (deep) floor of carpal tunnel, one or more distal carpal row (trapezoid and capitate) radial side of proximal phalanx base (palmar side) N: median B: radial flex at MP joint of thumb, aids in adduction and opposition of thumb
Abductor Pollicis Brevis flexor retinaculum, scaphoid, trapezium radial side of proximal phalanx base N: median B: radial true abductor of thumb, flexes thumb at MP joint
Adductor Pollicis (transverse) palmar surface of shaft of 3rd metacarpal (oblique) ligamentus floor of carpal tunnel over distal parts of capitate, trapezoid, trapezium & adjacent bases of metacarpals 1-3 ulnar side of palmar surface of base of proximal phalanx of the thumb N: ulnar B: deep palmar arch adducts thumb and flex thumb at CM joint and flex MP joint
Opponens Pollicis flexor retinaculum and trapezium length of 1st metacarpal on radial side N: median B: radial opposition
Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis fexor retinaculum and hamulus (hook) of hamate bone proximal phalanx N: ulnar B: ulnar flex 5th digit
Abductor Digiti Minimi pisiform unar aspect of base of proximal phalanx N: ulnar B: ulnar abduction of 5th digit
Opponens Digiti Minimi flexor retinaculum and hamulus (hook) of hamate bone ulnar border of 5th metacarpal shaft N: ulnar nerve B: deep palmar arch opposition of 5th digit
Palmaris Brevis medial border of palmar aponeurosis skin on ulnar surface of hand N: ulnar tenses skin of palm for gripping
Palmar Interossei 2nd, 4th, 5th metacarpals extensor tendons (proximal phalanges) N: ulnar B: common palmar digital arteries flex MP joint and extend IP joint
Dorsal Interossei adjacent metacarpals extensor expansions of 2nd to 4th digits N: ulnar B: common palmar digital arteries primary flexors at MP joint
Lumbricals tendons of flexor digitorum profundus expanded extensor tendons N: 1st & 2nd - median; 3rd & 4th - ulnar B: common palmar arteries aid in the extension of IP joints, aids in flexion of MP joints (2nd to 5th digits)
Levator Scapulae transverse processes of C1-C4 superior angle and upper part of medial border of scapula N: C3 + C4 B: transverse cervical artery elevates medial border of scapula and rotates glenoid cavity down, extending neck
Trapezius medial part of superior nuchal line, external occipital protuberance, ligamentum muchal, spinous processes of C7-T12 spine of scapula, acromion, lateral 1/3 of clavicle N: accessory & C3/C4 B: thyrocervical trunk (upper) elevates scapula and turns glenoid cavity up; (lower) depress scapula; (middle) retraction
Pectoralis Minor 3rd and 5th ribs coracoid process N: medial pectoral nerve B: thoracoacromial & lateral thoracic stabilizes scapula and draws it inferior and anterior
Created by: 531188962