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Chapter 11.

Mecca The Muslim holy city
Bedouins Nomadic herders.
Kaaba An ancient shrine
Khadjia A wealthy widow who ran a prosperous caravan business (Muhammad's first wife.)
Quran The sacred text of Islam
People of the book Jews and Christians
Oasis a fertile area in a desert, watered by a natural well or spring.
Hijra Muhammad and his followers journey
Monotheistic Belief in one God
Mosques A gathering house of worship
Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca
Jihad Effort in God, service, as another duty.
Sharia helped unite many people who converted to Islam.
Abu Bakr Succeeded in reuniting the Arabs/ first successor to Muhammad.
Battle of Tours A remarkable series of military conquests. This is how the Arabs gained more land everywhere, but the French ended up stopping them from advancing any further.
Fatima and Ali Muhammad's Daughter and son-in-law. (Shiites argued that they were the only true successors, because they were related to him. )
Umayyads A dynasty that ruled Islam(Islamic) until 750. 1st Dynasty
Abbassids Discounted Muslims. (The Abu al-abbas dynasty ruled during this) 2nd Dynasty
Harun al-Rashid Baghdad reached its peak while they were ruling( 786-809)
Seljuks They adopted Islam and built across the Fertile crescent, making it become a large empire.
Tamerlane A mongol leader, he led his army to victory's of Persia and Mesopotamia.
Caliph Successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims.
Minaret Slender tower of a mosque, from which Muslims are called to prayer.
Muezzin Mosque official who climbs to the top of a minaret to call the faithful to prayer.
Sultan Muslim ruler
Sufi Muslim mystics who sought communion with God through mediation, fasting, and other rituals.
Omar Khayyán A famous in the Muslim world as a scholar and astronomer.
Averroes A philosopher that put all the knowledge expect the Quran to the test of reason.
Muhammad al-Razi Head physician at Bahadad's chief hospital, he also wrote many books, also he studied the chicken pox and the measles.
Avicenna He was a doctor by age 16. He wrote a huge encyclopedia that had what you needed to do in order to cure people.
Social Mobility Ability to move up in social class.
Arabesque Intricate design made up of curved lines that suggest floral shapes, used to decorate rugs, textiles, and glassware.
Calligraphy Fancy or stylized handwriting.
Sikhism A new religion started by Nanak he wanted to blend Islamic and Hindu beliefs. Also preaching the unity of God, brotherhood for men, he didn't like the caste system, and thought idol worshiping was dumb.
Babur a military genius, poet, and an author of a fascinating book of memories.
Mughal a dynasty which ruled from 1526 to 1857.
Nur Jahan the wife of Jahangir
Taj Mahal it was a tomb built for Nur Jahan. Jahangir built this for her. Now its the greatest representation of the Mughal Empire.
Sultante landed ruled by a sultan
Caste In traditional Indian society, unchangeable social group into which a person is born.
Rajah elected warrior chief of an Aryan tribe in ancient India; local Hindu ruler in India
Sinan A royal architect, a military engineer, and he built Mosque.
Isfahan a center of the international silk trade.
Millet in the ottoman empire, a religious community of non-Muslims.
Janizary Elite force of the Ottoman Army
Shah King
Created by: LilyKilcrease