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Carnegie Peds

Review for Infant/ General Exam Test (MA Fall 2014)

Define Pediatrics Branch of medicine that deals with the development and care
Define Growth increase in the physical size of the body
Define Development increase in the function of the body
Ages of growth and development stages: Newborn birth to 2-4 weeks
Ages of growth and development stages: Infant 4 weeks
Ages of growth and development stages: Toddler 1-3 years
Ages of growth and development stages: Preschooler 3-6 years
Ages of growth and development stages: School age 6-12 years
Ages of growth and development stages: Adolescent 12-18 years
Growth and development principles : occurs in an orderly sequence: from head to toe and from gross to fine upper body 1st and big body movements 1st
Growth and development principles : Continuous and characterized by spurts of growth grow, stop, then boom, grow a couple inches
Growth guidelines: increase in height for first year 10 inches
Growth guidelines: increase in weight during first year doubles at 6 months, triples at 1 year
What does gestational age mean? length of time in utero - 40 weeks
At how many weeks is an infant considered preterm? before 37 weeks
At how many weeks is an infant considered term? 38-42 weeks
At how many weeks is an infant considered postterm? after 42 weeks
What is LGA? large for gestational age, larger than 90% of other infants at same gestational age
What is SGA? small for gestattional age; weighing less than 90% of other infants at same gestational age
What does the Apgar score represent? Assesses newborn's physical status
When is the Apgar test done? At 1 and 5 minutes after birth
What is the normal Apgar score? 7-10
What is the largest part of the newborn's body? head
Why do we measure the occipitofrontal head circumference (OFC)? Assesses brain growth
What is the OFC at birth? 13-14 inches/ 33-35.5cm
What is a fontanel or soft spot? soft membranous seam between skull bones
How many fontanels (soft spots) are there? 2
Where are the fontanels (soft spots) located? anterior fontanel on top: posterior fontanel, back of head
When does the anterior fontanel close? at 12-18 months
When does the posterior fontanel close? at 6-8 weeks
what is molding? compression of head in birth canal during labor
when do infants develop good head control? 4 months
What do infants see best at birth? bright lights
When do tears begin to develop? at 2 months
When can infants follow movement with their eyes? at 2 months
when do infants get full eye control? at 4 months
when do infants develop depth perception? 9 months
why are infants and young children more prone to ear infections than older children? Eustachian tube is shorter and more horizontal
What are milia? small pinpoint white or yellow dots on nose, forehead, cheeks and chin; clogges sweat and oil glands (NOT baby acne)
What are Mongolian spots? bluish black pigmentations on lower back, buttocks, anterior trunk, fingers and feet. 90% occurr in African, Indian, Asian, Mediterranean and Hispanic
Why does physiologic jaundice develop? yellowish discoloration of skin from excessive breakdown of RBCs after birth, within 24 hours TX, UV light
When do deciduous teeth usually begin to erupt? 5-9 months
What is meconium? 1st stool that is passed; black and tarry
What is the second stool that is passed? transitional stool: yellow color and seedy
What is the last stool that is passed? milk stool: soft and brown coming out by 4th day
When do infants lift their heads and put their hands to their mouths? 3 months
When do infants sit with support and grasp and manipulate objects? 6 months
When do infants sit without support, pull self to standing position, crawl, transfer objects from hand to hand 9 months
When do infantscreep, cruise, walk; being to build blocks; turn pages in a book 12 months
Created by: ma2b