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P1 PHAR 7456

Physiology - Neurophysiology Exam 04 Part 03

2 classes of neuronal receptors nerve endings and receptor cells
these can be actual bare terminals of nerve fibers, or specialized endings nerve endings
these are specialized cells that sense the environment, and then secrete neurotransmitters to excite nerve endings that are closely associated with the receptor cell. receptor cells
examples are photoreceptors (rods and cones) of the retina and hair cells of the cochlea and semicircular canals receptor cells
potential caused by a stimulus to a nerve ending generator potentials
potential caused by a stimulus to a receptor cell receptor potential
a peripheral afferent neuron is commonly termed? because it is the first neuron in the sensory pathway primary afferent
primary afferents have their cell bodies in the? dorsal root ganglia
typical 3 neuron pathway 1. primary afferent 2.secondary neuron in spinal cord or brainstem which projects to thalamus 3. tertiary neuron in thalamus which projects to cortex
AB(beta) touch -skin, myelinated
C skin, unmyelinated skin
A delta pain, skin, myelinated
enhanced sensation of pain at the site of tissue primary hyperalgesia
enhanced sensation of pain in the undamaged area surrounding the damaged area secondary hyperalgesia
sensed by high threshold receptor on (most commonly) bare nerve endings nociceptors
tough, outermost layer of the eye sclera
transparent external surface, major refractive component, continuous with sclera cornea
opening that controls the amount of light reaching the retina pupil
consists of 2 muscles, an inner circular and outer radial; pupillary diameter depends on activity of these muscles. eye color is based on this iris
fine-tunes refraction for focusing light on retina(accommodation) lens
spincter-like circular muscle; controls thickness of lens during accommodation ciliary muscle
connect lens to ciliary muscle. with relaxation of ciliary muscle, tension on these fibers is high, and lens is flat; vice versa for contraction of ciliary muscle zonular fibers
highly vascularized, b/w retina and sclera choroid
anterior chamber aqueous humor
posterior chamber vitreous humor
photoreceptive area of eye retina
center area (1mm2) of retina; site on retina where light falls if one looks straight macula
center of macula, only cones found, region of the greatest density fovea centralis
entrance of the optic nerve (blind spot) optic disc
normal vision emmetropia
far sightedness hyperopia
near sightedness myopia
with age, the lens becomes stiffer which prevents it from being able to assume a more round configuration. this reduces accommodation presbyopia
this is due to an uneven curvature of the cornea , which has the effect of focusing an object at 2 seperate places on the retina, producing blurry vision astigmatism
very sensitive to low levels of light, low acuity rods
less sensitive to light, high acuity, color vision cones
all photopigments consist of a light-absorbing molecule called? retinal
all photopigments consist of this protein opsin
an object up close requires more refraction to focus on the retina than an object far away, this is done by? accommmodation
image is focused behind the retina hyperopia
image is focused in front of the retina myopia
to correct defects that require reduced refraction you use a? concave lens
to correct defects that require increased refraction use a? convex lens
increased refraction hyperopia
reduced refraction myopia
a cylindrical lens is used to correct? astimatism
high cGMP opens Na channels so what happens? dark current- cell deporlarizes
dorsal pathway from the primary visual cortex is the? "where" pathway b/c helps in detecting where things are in space and detection of motion of objects
Ventral pathway from the primary visual cortex is the? "what" pathway b/c involved in identification of objects
lesions in the ventral pathway can lead to loss of color perception called? achromatopsia
lesions in the ventral pathway can lead to loss of the ability to name objects called? anomia
lesions in the ventral pathway can lead to inability to recognize familiar faces called? prosopagnosia
bilateral lesions to the this pathway makes it impossible to perceive a moving object dorsal pathway
Created by: oupharm2012