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Medical Terminology

Chapter 10

analgesic Pertaining to relieving pain; a medication that relieves pain.
anastomosis A surgical joining of two ducts, blood vessels or bowel segments to allow flow from one to the other.
aneurysm Localized kilation of a weakened area of the wall of an artery. The weakened area balloons out with every pulsation of the artery.
aneurysmectomy Surgical removal of the sac of an aneurysm.
anomaly Deviation from normal; birth defect; for example, congenital anomaly.
anorexia Lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat.
arthralgia joint pain
ascites An abnormal collection of fluid within the peritioneal cavity (the peritoneum is the serous membrane that lines the entire abdominal cavity). This fluid contains large amounts of protein and electrolytes.
atherosclerosis A form of arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) characterized by fatty deposits building up within the inner layers of the walls of larger arteries.
benign Noncancerous; not progressive.
bruit An abnormal sound or murmur heard when listening to a carotid artery, organ,or gland with a stethocope; for example, during auscultation.
carditis Inflammation of the heart muscles.
claudication Cramplike pains in the calves of the legs caused by poor circulation to the muscles of the legs; commonly associated with arerosclerosis.
Coronary artery One of a pair of arteries that branch from the aorta. The coronary arteries and their branches supply blood and oxygen to the heart muscle (myocardium).
cusp Any one of the small flaps on the valves of the heart.
dependent edema A fluid accumulation in the tissues influenced by gravity; usually greater in the lower extremities than in tissue levels above the level of the heart.
diastole The period of relazation of the heart, alternating with the contraction phase knoewn as systole.
dysrhythmia Abnormal rhythm.
edema The localized or generalized collection of fluid within the body tissues, causing the area to swell.
endocarditis Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart.
epicardium The inner layer of the pericardium, which is the doule-folded membrane that encloses the heart.
Hepatomegaly Enlargement of the liver.
Homan's sign Pain felt in the calf of the leg, or behind the knee, when the examiner is purposely dorsiflexing the foot of the patient. If the patient feels pain, it is called positive Homan's sign(indicating Thrombophlebitis)
hyperlipidemia An excessive level of fats in the blood.
hypertension Elevated blood pressure persistently higher than 135/85 mmHg; high blood pressure; AKA arterial hypertension.
hypotension Low blood pressure; less than normal blook pressure reading.
infaarctin A localized area of necrosis(death) in tissue, a vessel, an organ, or a part resulting from lack of oxygen(anoxia)due to interrupted blood flow to the area.
ischemia Decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part or organ.
lesion A wound, injury, or any pathological change in body tissue.
lipid Any of a group of fats or fatlike substances found in the blood. Examples of lipids are cholesterol, fatty acids. and triglycerides.
lumen Any cavity or the channel within any organ or structre of the body; the space within an artery vein, intestine, or tube.
malaise A vague feeling of body weakness or discomfort, often indicating the onset of an illness or disease.
mediastinum The area between the lungs in the chest cavity that contains the heart, trachea, esophagus, and bronchi.
murmur A low-pitched humming or fluttering sound, as in a "heart murmur," heard on auscultation.
myocardium The middle muscular layer of the heart.
nocturia Urination at night.
occlusion Closure, or state of being closed.
pacemaker The SA mode (sinoatrial) of the heart located in the right atrium. It is responsible for initiation the heartbeat, influencing the rate and rhythm by electrically stimulating the heart muscle to contract.
palpable Detectable by touch.
palpitation A pounding or racing of the heart, associated with normal emotional responses or with heart disorders.
pericardial Pertaining to the pericardium.
pericardium The double membranous sac that encloses the heart and the origins of the great blood vessels.
petechiae Small, purplish, hemorrhagic spots on the skin; may be due to abnormality in the blood-clotting mechanism of the body.
pitting edema swelling, usually of the skin of the extremities, that when pressed firmly with a finger will maintain the dent produced by the finger.
prophylactic An agent that protects against disease.
pulmonary artery One of a pair of arteries that transports deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation. The pulmonary arteries are the only arteries in the body to carry deoxygenated blood.
pulmonary circulation The circulation of deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation and back to the left atrium of the heart; that is, from the heart, to the lungs, back to the heart.
pulmonary vein One of four large veins (two from each lung) that returns oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the left atrium of the heart. The pulmonary veins are the only veins in the body to carry oxygenated blood.
SA node Sinatrial node; pacemaker of the heart
septum A wall, or partition, that divides or separates two cavities. The interatrial sepurm separates the right and left atria, the atrioventricular septum separates the atria and the ventricles,the interventricular septum separates the right & left ventricles
serum sickness A hypersensitivity reaction that may occur two the three weeks after administration of an antiserum. Symptoms include fever, enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly), swollen lymph nodes, jount pain, and skin rash.
Sydenham's chore A form of chorea (involuntary muscle twitching) associated with rheumatic fever, usually occurring in childhood.
systemic circulation The circulation of blood from the left vnetricle of the heart, throughout the body, & back to the right atrium of the heart. Oxygentated blood leaves the left ventricle of the heart & is distributed to the capillaries. Deoxygenated blood is picked up from
systole The contraction phase of the heartbeat forcing blood into the aorta and the pulmonary arteries. Systole is marked by the first sound heard on ausculation , or the first pulse palpated, after the release of the blood pressure cuff (sphygmomanometer).
Thrombosis The formation or existence of a blood clot.
vasoconstriction Narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel.
vegetation An abnormal growth of tissue around a valve.
AMI acute myocardial infarction
AS aortic stenosis
ASD atrial septal defect
ASHD arteriosclerotic heart disease
AV atrioventricular
BBB bundle branch block
BP blood pressure
CABG coronary artery bypass graft
CAD coronary artery disease
Cath Catheterization
CC cardiac catherization
CCU coronary care unit
CHD cornarry heart disease
CHF congestive heart failure
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CT(scan) or CAT(scan) Computed axial tomography (scan)
CVD cardiovascular disease
DOE Dyspnea on exertion
DVT deep vein thrombosis
ECG electrocardiogram
ECHO echocardiogram
EKG electrocardiogram
HCVD hypertensive cardiovascular disease
HDL high-density lipoprotein
ICD implantable cardioversion defibrillator
LDL low-density lipoprotein
MI myocardial infarction
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MS Mitral stenosis
MVP mitral valve prolapse
PACs premature atrial contractions
PAT paroxysmal atrial tachycardia
PDA patent ductus arteriosus
PET positron emission tomography
PTCA percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
PVCs premature ventricular contractions
SA sinoatrial
VSD ventricular septal defect
VT, V Tach. ventricular tachycardia
aneurysm/o aneurysm
angi/o vessel
arter/o, arteri/o artery
arteriol/o arteriole
ather/o fatty
cardio/o, coron/o heart
echo- sound
electr/o electrical, electricity
endo- within
-graphy process of recording
megal/o enlarged
my/o muscle
ventricul/o ventricle of the heart or brain
anxiety A feeling of apprehension, worry, uneasiness, or dread, especially of the future.
brandycardia A slow heart rate characterized by a pulse rate under 60 beats per minute.
chest pain A feeling of discomfort in the chest area.
cyanosis Slightly blusish, grayish, slatelike, or dark discoloration of the skin due to the presence of abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood.
dyspnea Air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing, sometimes accompanied by pain (normal when caused by vigorous work or athletic actiivity).
fatigue A feeling of tiredness or weariness resulting from continued activity or as a side effect from some psychotropic drug.
fever Elevation of temperature above the normal.
headache A diffuse pain in different portions of the head and not confined to any nerve distribution area.
nausea Unpleasant sensation, usually preceding vomiting.
pallor Lack of color; paleness
sweat Perspiration; the liquid secreted by the sweat glands, having a salty taste.
tachyccardia Abnormal rapidity of heart action, usually defined as a heart rate over 100 beats per minute.
vomiting Ejection through the mouth of the gastric content.
weakness Lacking physical strength or vigor (energy).
angina pecoris a severe pain & constriction about the heart, usually radiation to the left shoulder & down the left arm-creating a feeling of pressure in the anterior chest.
cardiac tamponade Compression of the heart caused by the accumulation of blood or other fluid within the pericardial sac; this prevents the ventricles from adequately filling or pumping blood.
cardiomyopathy a disease of the heart muscle itself, primarily affecting the pumping ability of the heart. A noninflammatory disease of the heart results in cardiomegaly & dysfunction of the ventricles of the heart.
congestive heart failure/cardiac failure Condition characterized by weakness,breathlessness,abdominal discomfort. Edema in the lower portons of the body resulting from venous stasis & the outflow of blood from the left side of the heart is reduced.
coronary artery disease is the narrowing of the coronary arteries to the extent that adequate blood supply to the myocardium is prevented.
endocarditis Inflammation of the membrane lining of the valves & chambers of the heart caused by direct invasion of baceria or other organisms & leading to deformity of the valve cusps.Abnormal growths (vegetations) are formed on or within the membrane.
hypertensive heart disease Result of long-term hypertension.The heart is affected because it must work against increased resistance due to increased pressure in the arteries.
mitral valve prolapse is drooping of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular systole, resulting in incomplete closure of the valve & mitral insufficiency.
myocardial infarction HEART ATTACK;condition caused by occlusion of one or more of the coronary arteries.This life-threatening condition results when myocardial tissue is destroyed in areas of the heart that are deprived of an adequate blood supply due to the occluded vessels.
myocarditis Inflammation of the myocardium
pericarditis Inflammation of the pericarduim. It may be acute or chronic.
rheumatic fever An inflammation disease that may develop as a delayed reaction to insufficiently treated group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection of the upper respiratory tract.
peripheral arterial occlusive disease Obstruction of the arteries in the extremities.The leading cause of this disease is atherosclerosis, which leads to narrowing of the lumen of the artery. The classic symptom is intermittent claudication, which is a cramplike pain in the muscles
Raynaud's phemomenon Intermittent attacks of vasoconstriction of the arterioles(causing pallor of the fingers or toes), followed by cyanosis & then redness before returning to normal color;initiated by exposure to cold or emotional disturbance.
thrombophlebitis Inflammation of a vein associated with the formation of a thrombus; usually occurs in an extremity, most frequently a leg.
varicose veins Enlarged, superficial veins; a twisted, dilated vein with incompetent valves.
venous insufficiency An abnormal circulatory condition characterized by decreased return of venous blood from the legs to the truck of the body.
coarctation of the aorta A congenital heart defect characterized by a localized narrowing of the aorta, which results in increased blood pressure in the upper extremities & decreased blood pressure in the lower extremities.
patent ductus arteriosus is an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery & the aorta caused by failure of the fetal dutus arteriosus to close after birth. This defect is seen primarily in premature infants.
tetralogy of fallot A congenital heart abnomaly that consists of four defects:pulmonary stenosis, interventricular septal defect, dextroposition of the aorta so that it receives blood from both ventricles,& hypertrophy of the right ventricle.
transposition of the great vessels A condition in which the two major arteries of the heart are reversed in position, which results in two noncommnicating circulatory systems.
atrial flutter Condition in which the contractions of the atria become extremely rapid, at the rate between 250 & 350 beats per minute.
fibrillation (atrial/ventricular) Is extremely rapid incomplete contractions of the atria resulting in disorganized & uncoordinated twitching of the atria.
heart block (AV) An interference with the normal conduction of electric impulses that control activity of the heart muscle.
ventricular tachycardia/ V-tach'/ (VT) A condition in which the ventricles of the heart beat at a rate greater than 100 beats per minute; characterized by 3 or more consecutive premature ventricular contractions.
angiography X-ray visualization of the internal anatomy of the heart & blood vessels after introducing a radiopaque substance that promotes the imaging of internal structures that are otherwise difficult to see on X-ray film.
cardiac catheterization A diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is introduced into a large vein or artery & then threaded through the circulatory system to the heart.
cardiac enzymes test Performed on samples of blood obtained by venipuncture to determine the presence of damage to the myocardial muscle.
Computerized axial tomography (CAT) A diagnostic X_ray technique that uses ionizing radiation to produce a cross-sectional image of the body.X-rays are fed into a computer, which then turns them into a cross-sectional picture of the section of the body being scanned.
echocardiography A diagnostic procedure for studying the structure & motion of the heart.It is useful in evaluating structural & functional changes in a variety of heart disorders.
electrocardiogram A graphic record of the electrical action of the heart as reflected from various angles to the surface of the skin.known as EKG or ECG.
event monitor An event monitor is similar to the Holter montor in that it also records the electrical activity of the heart while the patient goes about usual daily activities.A cardiac event monitor can be used for a longer period of time than a Holter monitor.
exercise stress testing A means of assessing cardiac function, by subjecting the patient to carefully controlled amounts of physical stress.(for example, using the treadmill).
Holter monitoring A small, portable monitoring device that makes prolonged electrocardiograph recordings on a portable tape recorder. The continuous EKG (ambulatory EKG) is recorded on a magnetic tape recording while the patient conducts normal daily activities.
implantable cardioverter defibrillator/ICD A small, lightweight electronic device placed under the skin or muscle in either the chest or abdomen to monitor the heart's rhythm. If an abnormal rhythm occurs, the ICD helps return the heart to its normal rhythm.
magnetic resonance imaging/ MRI Involves the use of a strong magnetic field and radiofrequency waves to produce imaging that is valuable in providing images of the heart, large blood vessels, brain and soft tissue.
position emission tomography/ PET A computerized x-ray technique that uses radioactive substances to examine the blood flow & the metabolic activity of various body structures, such as the heart & blood vessels.
serum lipid test Measures the amount of fatty substances (cholesterol,triglyceredes, & lipoproteins) in a sample of blood obtained by venipuncture.
Thallium stress test One of the several nuclear stress tests, is a combination of exercise stress testing with thallium imaging (myocardial perfusion scan) to assess changes in coronary blood flow during exercise.
Created by: destamay