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Chapter 8 & 9 Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins

What are vitamins? Organic compounds essential to diet and promote growth and health maintenance.
Water soluble vitamins? B vitamins, vitamin C, Choline
Fat soluble vitamins? vitamin A, D, E, K
Make up of B vitamins? Many different substances. They were thought to be made up of only one.
Two categories of vitamins? Water soluble & Fat soluble
B vitamins consist of.... Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Pantothenic acid, Vit B6, Folate, Vit B12.
Fat Soluble consist of .... Vit D, E, A, K
What is fortification? Adding nutrients to foods that generally are not found in food or added nutrients in greater quantities. Example: Calcium is added to Orange Juice
What is enrichment? Adding nutrients to food which have been lost during processing. Example B vitamins to white rice.
What are Dietary Supplements? Another source of vitamins, can contain a combination of vitamins, minerals, herbs, botanicals, amino acids, enzymes, or extracts. Can not replace a diet containing variety of foods.
What does bioavailibility mean? Vitamins must be absorbed by body to perform their functions
What percentage of vitamins are absorbed? 40-90%
Where are vitamins absorbed? small intestine
What does fat soluble vitamins need to be absorbed? requires fat from diet
Function of Vitamin A Eye --> Retina, Growth development, Immune, and Bone
Function of Vitamin C Synthesize: Collagen/Hormones/Neurotransmitters/Bile/Caratine, Promotes Iron Absorption, Antioxidant, Regenerates Vitamin E
Function of Vitamin B12 Production of ATP from amino acids, Myelination, Conversion of Methoine from homeocyst
Functions of Niacin Energy Metabolism
Functions of Thiamin Helps break down glucose, needed for neural function, Synthesis of neurotransmitters ribose & deoxyribose
Functions of Vitamin K Production of plasma proteins for clotting, Proteins in bone formation & breakdown
Functions of Riboflavin (B2) Prevent O2 damage, vision, cell energy production, converts folate/niacin/B6/K into active forms.
Functions of Pyridoxine (B6) Neurotransmitters , Myelination, AA metabolism, breakdown of glycogen into glucose, Hemoglobin, synthesize nonessential AA
Functions of Vitamin E Protects lipids by neutralizing reactive O2 throughout the body, defends against heavy metals and toxins.
Functions of Folate Decrease the risk factor of neural tube defects in fetus, Synthesis for DNA dividing cells
Functions of Vitamin D Absorption of Calcium and Phosphorus for maintenance of bone
Sources of Vitamin A All but grains, fish, almonds, Best is carrots/liver/eggs
Sources of Vitamin C Citrus, Broccoli, Strawberries, Cantalope
Sources of Vitamin B12 All meat and Dairy
Sources of Niacin Grains, fish, peanuts,chicken, lentils
Sources of Thiamin Enriched grains, bran contains thiamin, whole grains, seeds, nuts, legumes
Sources of Vitamin K Intestinal bacteria, vegetable oil, leafy greens
Sources of Riboflavin Dairy, Oragan, all meats, whole grains, asparagus, broccoli, mushrooms, darks greens, herbs, nuts,
Sources of Pyridoxine (B6) Seeds, chicken, fish, lentils, pork, dairy, Some fruits and vegetables, whole wheat products, enriched foods.
Sources of Vitamin E All food sources, mainly nuts, seeds, plant oils, and fortified foods.
Sources of Folate All food sources, mainly lentils, leafy greens, wheat products, beets
Sources of Vitamin D Egg yolks, liver, fish, fortified dairy, sunlight
Results of Deficiency Vitamin A Night blindness, liver damage, bone fractures, no differentiation in epithelial cells
Results of Deficiency Vitamin C Scurvy
Results of Deficiency Vitamin B12 Pernicious Anemia, Macrolytic Anemia, Degeneration of Myelin, Paralysis, Death
Results of Deficiency Niacin (B3) Fatigue/Low appetite/ indigestion 4D's: Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Dementia, Death
Results of Deficiency Thiamin Tachycardia, Weakness, cardiomegaly, nerve degeneration, extreme weakness
Results of Deficiency Vitamin K Hemorrhage
Results of Deficiency Riboflavin Fatigue, slow growth, digestive problems, sores on mouth, swollen tongue
Results of Deficiency Pyridoxine (B6) Lesions, poor growth, heart disease, anemia, neurologic, depression, poor immunity, headache, convulsions, nausea
Results of Deficiency Vitamin E RBC rupture, nerve damage, hemolytic anemia
Results of Deficiency Folate Macrocytic anemia, glossitis, diarrhea, poor growth, neural tube defects, depression, insomnia, mental fatigue, confusion, cells cant divide.
Results of Deficiency Vitamin D Osteoporosis, Osteomalatia, Rickets
High Risk Group Vitamin A pregnant women, acne medication
High Risk Group Vitamin C smokers, malenourished, pirates, pregnant or nursing women
High Risk Group Vitamin B12 vegetarians, elderly, pregnant, gastric bypass patients,
High Risk Group Niacin poverty, malenourished, alcoholics
High Risk Group Thiamin asians eat a lot of white rice, alcoholics
High Risk Group Vitamin K newborns (premature) antibiotics
High Risk Group Riboflavin elderly, ill, birth control, alcoholics,
High Risk Group Pyridoxine (B6) alcoholics,
High Risk Group Vitamin E premature infants, people with poor fat absorption
High Risk Group Folate Pregnant women, poor diet, alcoholics
High Risk Group Vitamin D infants, elderly, dk skin, little sun exposure, people with kidney disease
Toxicity Vitamin A blindness
Toxicity Vitamin C high doses causes diarrhea/nausea/kidney stones, increased iron, interference with blood clotting, worsen sickle cell
Toxicity Vitamin B12 NA
Toxicity Niacin blurred vision/tingling in hands and feet, diarrhea, vomiting, high blood sugar, skin rash, abnormal liver functions.
Toxicity Thiamin NA
Toxicity Vitamin K anemia and brain damage
Toxicity Riboflavin NA - itching, light sensativity
Toxicity Pyridoxine (B6) numbness, nerve damage
Toxicity Vitamin E inhibition of K activity, blood thinners affect
Toxicity Folate insomnia, irritability, GI dysfunction
Toxicity Vitamin D calcium deposits in soft tissue, growth retardation
Soluble Vitamin A fat
Soluble Vitamin C water
Soluble Vitamin B12 water
Soluble Niacin water
Soluble Thiamin water
Soluble Vitamin K fat
Soluble Riboflavin water
Soluble Pyridoxine (B6) water
Soluble Vitamin E fat
Soluble Folate water
Soluble Vitamin D fat
Created by: sthomp17