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Architect Midterm 3

Ch.11 Greeks, Ch. 12 Romans, Ch.3 Firmeness, and Aegean Sea

Where is the architrave ? It is on the bottom most part of the entablature on the column. It is above the capital
Where is the cornice? The roof underneath the pediment on a column
arete excellence, Greeks strive to achieve this
Miletos was rebuilt on ______ plan after _______ destroyed the city Grid plan and Persians
What was the most important greek secular building according to roth stoas -they lined and came to define the agoras (marketplace) long rectangular buildings open on one side
what are the basic parts of the greek theater theatron, orchestra, skene
What does Roth describe Erechtheum as? why? "a jewel box" of delicate refinement through despair and darkness.
alxemata betterments. referring to the subtle visual refinements of the parthenon
what is bouleuterion used for civic council house in asia minor
What did the Greeks succeed in living forever
Who is the main persian leader that fought in wars against Greek city-states Darius and Xerxes
What are romans best at? shaping spaces
T or F The romans were speculative and idealistic False, they were pragmatic and realistic
what is an oculus the eye or sun roof at the top of the dome
what is a coffer square indentation on the dome
Temple of Fortuna that I talked about in class is a clear illustration of what? rule of the axis
cardo a kind of street that runs north and south in the military encampment in timgad, algeria
What was the novel Roman interest represented by Nero The natural landscape
what was the romans principal innovation in 70s AD combine 2 theaters to make an amphitheater
What is the purpose of the basilica? hold legal proceedings
what was the largest basilica in rome Basilica Ulpia
Who is the architect of two apartment towers in chicago and also wrote the epigraph of ch. 3 Mies Van Der Rohe
Where is the triglyph located in the uppermost portion of the entablature on a doric order metope is next to it
what is the voussoir the wooden or stone pieces that make up the arch
what is a spandrel the bricks or stone that are in between two arches
what are the two great advantages that the arch has over the lintel 1. can span much greater distances 2. made up of smaller parts (voussoirs) so that you dont have to find a huge stone
what is a truss? what is the basis of its strength straight wood pieces arranged in triangle shapes to be used in constructing buildings.Triangle
caementa aggregate they put in concrete
how does structure influence cultural expression in a building like gothic cathedral the high pointed arches express the hope of heaven
where does the name minoan come from name of a legendary king - minos
who overpowered the Mycenaeans, what did they bring? Dorians, brought male sky gods to Greece like Zeus
why did the greek city-states create colonies they were responding to poor agricultural conditions at home
What kind of writing did Minoans leave behind? what island? what information did we learn about them Linear B on Crete- not much because they only left grocery lists, very early form of Greek
where is the peloponese? cyclades? in greece. peloponese is to left looks like a hand and cyclades are the small islands floating in the aegean sea
near east has ________ and temples while Egypt has _____ and temples [thesis] Palaces while egypt has tombs
how was crete protected by the med sea
what was the minoan characteristic building type palaces, mycenae has temples
who did mycenaeans take over minoans
what was the purpose of palace at knossos office building for the bureaucrats, kind of a town, food storage
what type of plan was the palace at knossos maze like labyrinth, minoans did not like regularity, they wanted complexity
What was palace at knossos made of wooden post and lintel to provide flexibility and tension, rubble (unshaped stone) walls, sun dried brick on upper wall, fresco (plaster) in main room
describe minoan columns at palace of knossos thin at bottom and thick at top
what does the decoration in palace at knossos remind you of? what are the features neo-babylonia : Fantastic animal , heraldic arrangement, bands are stretched infinitely
What material did Mycenaeans use a lot ? how did they use it Stone, dressed stone and monumental stone architecture
Cyclopean masonry Immense stones organized into lion gate. Mycenaean culture. Could have only been put in place by cyclops. Not finely dressed
How did akropolis palace at tiryns Greece deter invaders? Thick defensive walls and ramp to entrance left invaders' right side exposed for attack
megaron: culture? Purpose? Put together? Mycenean. royal events. Porch, vestibule, and hall with hearth in center and throne to one side
what is the purpose of City walls and Lion Gate in Mycenea Greece? more to impress than defensive purposes. uses cyclopean masonry
what 3 cultures are represented in City walls and Lion gate in Mycenae Greece? Egypt - dressed stone. Ancient Near East (Neo-Babylonian) - heraldic treatment. Minoan- columns
What 3 countries/areas are a part of Minoan culture? Crete, Cyclades, peloponnese
Who is Atreus King of Mycenae. Pelops' son who was king of Peloponnese (minoan culture). had the "Treasury of Atreus" which was a tomb really and set in mycenean culture
Kamares ware ceramics in Minoan culture, pitcher thinly potted, a combination of understatement and exuberance
Treasury of Atreus has the same purpose as what Prehistoric structure? passage graves
what type of arch is at entrance of treasury of atreus corbelled arch
describe the columns and decoration on Treasury of Atreus that are now in London museum columns are thin at bottom and thick at top like Minoans. they have chevron zig zag pattern with beautiful spirals throughout. Log discs and triglyph decoration as well (not the greek one)
What does this "New order of the ages" mean? 1st age of human existence was the best, the golden age. it progressively got worse with more violence and killing in the 4th age or iron age. We want to go back to this golden age
Greeks concentrated in what 3 places? mainland -Greece. Ionia - edge of Turkey (Priene, Miletus, Ephesus) . western greece - Italy, Sicily
Greeks developed standardized rectangular ______ which they treated as ________. what does this mean? [thesis] temples which they treated as solids (like statues). idea that all parts of building should be beautiful
Greeks gave us how many orders? what are they? [thesis] 3 kinds, one plain top - doric and 2 curly tops - ionic and corinthian
Greeks carried _______ to peak of refinement, but constantly hit troubles at the __________ [thesis] temples but hit problems at the corners
Greeks developed principal of _______ seating for _________ [thesis] concentric seating for council halls and theaters
developed ___________from Egyptians and passed on to other cultures [thesis] grid plan
what is a metope, what happens in it? Greek part of the entablature on the doric column, next to triglyph. focus is on human figure and relief sculptures of humans
what subject dominates Greek art? humans
Greek architecture is architecture of ________ while roman architecture is of _________ Greek-solids. Romans -Spaces
Liberty (who should we thank for it)` Greeks
Greeks invented what idea to reason out the universe philosophy
what do Greeks call themselves? what are non-greeks called? Hellenes. non greeks are barbarians
Why did Greeks have trouble banding together prior to their official start? too much fighting, could not achieve peace. it is easier to take wealth away from people than to make it yourself *heart of the problem
temple in antis columns are between 2 walls or antas
prostyle temple columns are in front of temple
amphiprostyle temple columns are in front of and in back of temple
peripteral temple colonnade running all the way around temple ex. parthenon
distyle, tetrastyle, hexastyle, octastyle distyle: 2 columns across front - antis. tetrastyle: 4 columns -prostyle, amphiprostyle. hexastyle: 6 columns-peripteral. octastyle - 8 columns
what is the greek way of categorizing temples? name them. by how many columns they have across front. Distyle, tetrastyle. hexastyle. octastyle
naos or cella inner room, basic ingredient of a greek temple
what is the basic parts of a Greek order post and beam
what are 3 parts of post? [greek column] Base, shaft, capital
what are 3 parts of the beam? [greek column] top is cornice, frieze (decorative band), architrave (bottommost of 3 elements)
why could the doric order not be perfected? because of triglyph at corners
Artemis (goddess of what?) virgin goddess, goddess of child birth, wild animals, hunting
Describe how temple of artemis is put together peripteral style temple. oriented so that god looked out front door to east. naos or cella
What are the 3 rules of Doric order in order to not fail at corners 1. triglyphs was supposed to be centered over columns to be evenly spaced 2. metopes supposed to be square 3. corners should be strong (end w/ triglyph)
what is the classic problem in the pediments on greek orders? how to fill the pediment with sculpture
describe the sculpture in the pediment of temple of artemis medusa in center, panthers on sides, winged horse, scenes of figures on different scales killing each other. not a very sophisticated way to solve problem of filling pediments
what is the purpose of entasis? anthropomorphic architecture - like a human when you carry a heavy weight you have a little give , slump
what gives the reflected light and shadows on the column flutes
what are the 3 purposes of parthenon 1. house goddess 2. glorify one of most powerful greek city states 3. function as double vault or strong room (to protect statue of Athena made out of gold and ivory)
what are the 2 naos' in parthenon -room of the maidens (golden treasure) - room with statue of Athena
what building is the embodiment of excellence in Greek architecture? parthenon
4 kinds of refinement in Greek parthenon (very subtle) 1. curvature (no straight lines on building) 2. entasis (ability to carry a load) 3. tilt 4. corner columns (thicker than the rest at corners)
What building solved the classic problem of sculpture in the pediments Parthenon
what 4 things should I remember about parthenon (features, purpose, type of temple, effect on greeks, effect on arts) 1. filed with unprecedented features: temple was richly adorned, honor athena and city 2. peripteral temple peak of trabeated architecture 3. summit of greek human centered art 4. peak for uniting architecture and sculpture
purpose of erectheion temple to hold half a dozen gods, multipurpose
describe column base at erectheum convex on bottom, concave over top of that
what did they substitute columns for at erectheum? female figures called caryatids
purpose of bouleuterion architecture of democracy, government building, council chamber to have meetings
purpose of theater at epidaurus? how was it made? rituals of dionysis, architectuer of drama. cut from a hill
What did Greeks get from Egyptians grid plan, depicting humans in sculpture, building in stone
what is the greek trait or theme? Take an idea and perfect it
what is the design of city of miletus and priene in Turkey grid plan
Etruscans use what 4 architectural elements that have lasted? [thesis] 1. they united orders with arches 2. developed the atrium 3. a one story courtyard 3. built deep porticos on temples 4. develop tuscan order
purpose of porta algusta (culture, etruscan, ceremonial entrance to powerful city. True arch that married the orders
honorific arch vs. triumphal arch large arch in roman architecture that belongs to higher class. triumphal arch is smaller arches next to honorific for sub class. from etruscans to romans
What is the design of an etruscan temple? axially designed, deep portico approached only from front. go in to see 3 cellas or holy chambers
describe tuscan order base is one big, muscular convex molding. very robust top gable is overhung very far
what building had greater influence on political social and architectural events in rome than any other building? [etruscan] temple of Jupiter Capitolinus
Purpose of temple of jupiter capitolinus house gods -jupiter, mannerva, and juno. political building for govt decisions
roman architecture is architecture of what? universality
even though Romans borrowed a lot from greeks and etruscans they still did what? transformed what they borrowed
romans are masters of what design? [thesis] Axially designed, everything symmetrical
romans made the revolutionary union of _____ and ______. It is the roman revolution in structure [thesis] concrete and arch
what are 2 ingredients to make concrete? cement and aggregate or stickum and stuffing
decumanus east and west streets in grid plan of military encampment
what did etruscans give to romans? -marriage of arch and column -honorific arch -temple of Jupiter-deep portico on temple
what type of plan is pompeii on? irregular streets, not a grid plan
Purpose of basilica? why is it significant [thesis] legal proceedings, most useful building type whose origins lie in Egypt
what is the simple system to understand roman wall decoration? 4 phases and 2 patterns. 1. from simple to complex 2. from closed to open and back again
what are the 4 styles of roman fresco or decoration 1. plaster painted to look like marble (fake using contact paper) 2. using perspective in wall painting 3. painting of a painting, (flat) 4. mix of all, imitation marble, flat wall w/ paintings of painting and use of perspective
Romans took over what from Etruscans? [thesis] marriage of arch and orders
triclinium., where can i find it? 3 couches. seen in house of drinking contest. room for entertaining
decor rightness. Vitruvius' term. subject matter matches function of the room (form follows function)
what is the floor mosaic from the house of the drinking contest made of tesserae or little stone chips and smalt- little pieces of glass
where can we see an example of decor house of the drinking contest, murals on floor match function of the room
floor mosaic of the 4 seasons main ideas (relationship to greeks, painting, world, and what vocab word does it exemplify) -durable equivalent to painting - very Greek because it focuses on figure not space - this worldly -decor (content and decoration match room)
What are the main ideas or legacies of the general treatise on architecture , who wrote it? Vitruvius, architecture is a liberal art ( unlike sculpture or painting because those can be done by slaves) architects need book learning not just craft
what does vitruvius say a thing has to have in order to be architecture commoditas (function), firmitas (firmness), venustas (beauty)
difference between greek and roman in how they constructed their theaters? roman created man made hills using arch construction. greeks sculpted theaters from natural landscaped hills
what building complex gives us great insight into roman greatness of architecture? [thesis] Trajan's forum
in Trajan's forum, roman spatial gift was layout of what? [thesis] horizontal curves
where do wee roman spatial gift of vertical curves (arches)? [thesis] up the hill in Trajan's markets
in Forum of Trajan we see many of the most basic building types like what? [thesis] basilica
Pantheon is pure _____ and rich _____ [thesis] pure form (column under a sphere) and rich decoration
pantheon had what 2 kinds of richness or lavishness? [thesis] 1. Materials- obvious, monolithis and sheets of stone are expensive 2. lavishness of space-large dome
baths were roman lab for experimenting with what? [thesis] architecture on a grand scale
Created by: simmonsss