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Architect Midterm 1

Course in Brief (lecture 1) and Ch. 9 Prehistory

90 percent rule If we are not writing while we listen only 10% of information is remembered
what is the most basic definition of architecture architecture is a variety of boxes that people put themselves in
prehistory is the golden age of what? round buildings
what is the trajectory of the shape of buildings through history from round buildings to rectangular buildings
another name for post construction Earthfast or post and lintel
what is the orientation of the White Temple of Uruk corners facing NSEW
what type of temple is white temple of uruk high temple
what is white temple of uruk made of? sun-dried brick aka mud brick aka adobe
what is Ziggurat of Uranammu made of? why is it significant? Fired brick, ziggurat is first major building using hard material
what is the orientation of Funerary complex of Zoser? sides face NSEW, axial layout
Funerary complex of Zoser architect Imhotep
what is Funerary complex of Zoser made of? Free stone- stone that can be worked with a tool that can be moved in any direction (chisel)
What did funerary complex of zoser evolve from? Mastaba -sun dried clay tomb. stack 6 mastabas on each other
What are Greeks masters in? solids
what is purpose of Parthenon in Greece? house goddess Athena
Parthenon architect(s) Ictinus, Callicrates, and Phidias
what is purpose of Baths of Caracalla? what culture? Romans. civic center to regenerate body and spirit
What are Romans masters in? scenic and sculptural spaces and axial design
Trabeated vs. arcuated trabeated- post and beam. arcuated- arches
What material is Roman's specialty concrete
describe shape of Old St Peters in Early Christian period center aisle and 2 side aisles. Basilica and longitudinal space
what is purpose of Old St Peters shrine over a tomb
what is compromise or compound plan mix of central and longitudinal spaces
What type of plan does Hagia Sophia have? Compound plan - long space with domes
what kind of setting does the interior of the Byzantine church, Hagia Sophia, create? otherworldly and heavenly
what type of plan does Cathedral of Chartres have? Compromise or compound plan
what direction is the priest oriented in the Gothic Cathedral of Chartres? East
what is the structure of Chartres? skeletal-nothing solid lots of stained glass
what are the 4 big lessons he talked about in lecture 1? 1. there's no such thing as progress in the arts 2. there's no reason to think human nature has changed 3. continuity is a major law in architecture 4. building and architecture teach us imagination and self-discipline
perspective drawing drawing of a building receding into space
geometric plan floor plan, flat shapes
elevation plan view of a building seen from one side
section drawing drawing that lets us see the interior without perspective
detail plan more specific sections of building. plan or elevation of part of a building
what is the purpose of this course? walk away with a story of western architecture in your head. balance of big ideas and details
Dr. Roth's education BA: bachelor of architecture at U of Illinois 1966 Ph.D in architectural history at Yale 1973.
what does Ph.D mean Doctor means one who teaches, philosophy means love of wisdom. so Love of teaching
Where has Roth taught? and how long? Professor of Architectural History Emeritus at University of Oregon for 40 years
what did Roth write his discertation on? Mckim, Mead and White
What subject is Roth weakest at? strongest? Ancient Near East (weakest) American and modern subjects (strongest)
What is the organization of our textbook based on? began as outline for a television show in 1977 by community college students
what are publication dates of textbook 1993, 2006, 2014
when did the kind of plan that we see at Old St. Peters in Rome become internationally popular in the Western world? starting 500 years after construction of Old St. Peter's
in the Greek tradition, an order consists of what basic structure? Post and beam
what is the schedule for the baths of caracalla? men use them in afternoon, women in the morning
True or False: We call much of prehistory the stone age. almost all the architecture was made entirely of stone False
In the epigraph, who does Lewis Mumford say was the first to have a permanent dwelling? what was the dwelling? the Dead, a cave. and the necropolis or final cemetery
architecture is more than shelter, what is it ? Symbol and form of communication
What is the order of evolution of humans? Australopithecus anamensis (Lucy skeleton). Australopithecus africanus (symbolic thought and self awareness). Homo Habilis (handy man). Homo erectus (bipedal. Homo Heidelbergensis (european cousins)
what does Terra Amata mean in latin? Beloved land
who dwelled in Terra Amata? homo erectus
what is terra amata made out of? branches, piled rocks, posts
What does Terra amata suggest about civilization? Homo Erectus had a regular hunting cycle. Hearth fire suggests gathering of group and a community
what kind of building was the parent of other kinds? the house
who is the first architect whose name we know? Imhotep -stepped pyramid of zoser
who were the neanderthals? Cave dwellers
hypogeum a cellar
Our most detailed understanding of how a neolithic city functions is what? Chatal Huyuk
what do the neanderthal burial residues imply? they had a social structure, valued the old and infirm
What structure did Neanderthals live in? caves, there is no evidence of built structures
who were neanderthals replaced with Homo sapiens sapiens or cro-magnon people
describe cro-magnon dwelling. where is it? dome shaped house covered with hides and mammoth bones piled around perimeter. Ukraine
what is the most compelling evidence of cro-magnon intellectual capacity painting and sculpture they created. became aware of a cycle of life
why did cro-magnons paint on cave walls? noone is sure. fertility or initiation rites. images of hunting magic. spiritual images. promote the animals that were disappearing from the earth.
how did dwellings at Monte Verde stay preserved so long? layer of peat that had sealed off oxygen and preserved the wood and leather remains
what is monte verde dwellings made of ? base timber portions, mammoth hide covers. wood stakes and fiber cordage
when was upper paleolithic ? 40,000 BC- 8000 BC
what is the Gobekeli Tepe used for? a temple, used T shaped stones
megalith means great stone
what does Ggantija mean? what is it used for? where is it? when is it? means Gigantic. religious centers, temple complex, houses over 7000 dead. at islands of Malta in Med sea. during neolithic period
dolmens (what is it? wheres it found? hows it put together) table stones, roofed tomb structures used in Neolithic period consisted of 3 vertical stone slabs supporting massive horizontal slab. found at Lanyon Quoit, Cornwall England. for burial chambers
Describe what strange occurrence happens at New Grange tomb at the rise of the winter solstice the light enters the passage grave and hits the back of the tomb for 21 minutes
what is a corbeled vault, where can we find an example of one? stones stacked over one another to create an upside down V. at new grange tomb near Dublin
what is the best known prehistoric megalithic construction? stonehenge
what was the effect of new grange tomb on the winter solstice channel of communication between living outside and dead within
what are the four phases of Stonehenge? 1. Earthhenge-trench dug to mark out the area 2. timberhenge- erect wood 3.bluestonehenge-blue stone uprights erected inside the circle, dragged from Wales to Wiltshire 4. stonehenge-blue stones taken out, sarens put up and trilithons in the middle
trilithon 2 stone uprights carrying a lintel., used to make stonehenge
sarsens stone uprights, used to make stonehenge
what was stonehenge used for? astronomical observations, mark phases and eclipses of the moon. expression of identity. gathering place where cycle of sun and life was celebrated
What is skara brae and why is it significant? a village in Orkney Islands off of Scotland. It was made entirely of stone unlike most dwellings made of wood and thatch.
What happened in "Neolithic Revolution" agriculture developed in Fertile crescent. stone tools replaced by small tools of volcanic glass (obsidian). more fixed settlements. cities grow in size. social organization became more complex
what is the earliest known city built in neolithic period? Chatal Huyuk in modern day Turkey
what did people trade at Chatal Huyuk? what was their main source of food? traded obsidian to fertile crescent. farming community
describe the way Chatal Huyuk community looked houses packed tightly together, no streets, enter the house through the roof. made out timber frames filled with mud brick
What spurred the move from Africa to Asia and Europe? bipedalism. developed techniques for hunting and had mastered the control of fire.
What made the need for finding shelter urgent? the move to Asia and Europe. and the ice ages
What helped neolithic people fashion more permanent structures for ceremonial purposes and ritual celebrations? growing division and specialization of labor. more complex and centralized social organizations
What are the 2 turning points in Upper Paleolithic period? what changed? (thesis) 1. Biological: our kind became dominant over Neanderthals 2. Behavioral: became more organized hunters, specialization in what they hunted, made camps and predicted migration of animals
What was found in caves at Lascaux, France? what does it suggest? Paintings on walls of animals. they had bigger settlements, more food, and round buildings of houses
what is the basic construction of terra amata? post contruction
What are the two kinds of prehistoric construction that has lasted into today? [thesis] vertical and horizontal log construction
vertical construction driving a post into the ground. post construction
where can I find an example of horizontal log construction? vilage at Lake Biskupin, Poland.
what are positives and negatives of horizontal log construction? +: made it possible to settle countless areas. -:cannot produce walls for many windows
What is the great shift in architecture when dealing with the dead? [thesis] Passage graves oriented on winter sun --> circles oriented on summer sun
What is a constant architectural theme of Neolithic period? why? special places for the dead because 1. bodies accumulate, 2. you want things from the dead, 3. keep dead away from living
what are the 3 parts of a passage grave 1. passage- post and beam construction 2.chamber-corbel dome arch 3.mound of earth heaped over
What are the 3 great passage graves in Ireland? Dowth, Knowth, New Grange (most popular)
describe the decoration in front of new grange spirals on a stone covering door that lets a little light in
What is significant about Isles of Orkney? Where is it? Islands right above Scotland. epicenter of Scotland in neolithic period. tells story of the human race. home to farmers and fisherman. fertile land. had passage graves similar to new grange.
What are 3 other circular structures other than stonehenge? Barnhouse, Stenness, Ring of Brodgar
Henge round ditch inside a bank of dirt. you dont need stone to have a henge
every inhabited area in neolithic Britain had what? circular enclosure
What were passage graves replaced by? stenness
what was stenness used for? which way was it oriented? burial rituals. oriented on summer solstice
What is Ring of Brodgar? Neolithic henge and stone circle in Orkney, Scotland
What is Avebury? Neolithic henge monument containing three stone circles, around the village of Avebury in Wiltshire, England. largest of stone circles
sarsen stones stone uprights. sandstoned boulders found lying on ground not shaped at all.
woodhenge bank and ditch or henge, inside lies 6 rings og wooden posts, place for public meetings
What are the 6 characteristics of Stonehenge [thesis] 1. unique 2.end of the line for stone circles in Britain 3. evolves from 11 phases (we only need to know 4) 4.simple relation to sun 5. built using technology of woodworking 6. incorporates refinements called entasis
what is the axis aligned with on stonehenge aligned with rising sun on a midsummer day
Trilithon is made by what woodworking technique? mortise and tenon joint. has little bit of curve on stone too.
Created by: simmonsss