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# DOEMath gr6-8

### VA DOE Math Vocabulary grades 6-8

Question | Answer |
---|---|

altitude | the distance from one side of a polygon to the vertex farthest from that side of the polygonthe shortest distance between the base of a geometric figure and the “top” of the figure; the “top” may be an apex, vertex, or another base |

area | the measure of the interior region of a two-dimensional figure The area of a polygon in the coordinate plane is a positive number such that: The area of the unit square is one;•Congruent polygons have equal areas;•If a polygon is a union of two or mo |

term | parts of an expression separated by + or - signs |

transformations | operations that alter the location or form of a figure |

translation | a transformation in which a geometric figure is moved to another location without changing its size (isometry) or orientation |

theoretical probability | the ratio of the number of exppected outcomes if the experiment is repeated over and over; P (E); |

trapezoid | a quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides |

variable | a symbolic representation used to denote a quanitity or expression |

vertical angles | angles formed by intersecting line. vertical angles have a common vertex and are congruent |

volume | the total amount of space inside a three-dimensional object. Volume is measured in cubic units. |

whole numbers | non-negative integers |

polygon | a simple, closed, plane figure with three or more sides that are line segments |

polyhedron | s three-dimensional geometric figure with polygonal faces |

prime number | a natural number with exactly two factors (itself and one) |

prism | a polyhedron with two, parallel, polygonal bases |

proportion | a statement of equality between ratios |

pyramid | a polyhedron with a polygonal base, triangular faces and a vertex |

Pythagorean Theorem | a theorem defining the relationship between the lengths of the three sides of a right trainalge |

quadrilateral | a polygon with four sides |

ratio | a comparison of any two quantities; may be expressed as a:b or a to b or a/b |

quartile | any of the three values which divide the sorted data set into four equal parts so that each part represents 1/4 of the sampled population. |

rational numbers | the set of numbers that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers |

rectangle | a parallelogram with one right angle; a square is a special case of a rectangle with four congruent sides |

reflection | a transformationin which all points |

relation | a rule that pairs each element in one set(the domain) with one or more elements in another set (the range) |

rhomus | a parallelogram with four congruent sides |

rotation | a transformation in which all points under the transformation are turned through an angle of rotation about a center of rotation |

sample space | the set of all possible outcomes of an experiment |

scatter plot | a graph of paired data in which the data values are plotted as points in (x,y) format |

scientific notation | a standardized way of writing real numbers |

similar | having the same shape but not necessarily the same size |

simple interest | a method of computing interest |

square root | a nonnegative nubmer that must be multiplied by itself to equal a given number |

square | a parallelogram with one right angle and four congruent sides |

stem-and-leaf plot | a simple way to display the distribution of data |

supplementary angles | two angles with measures adding to 180 degrees |

surface area | the total area of the exterior of a three-dimensional geometric figure; |

set | a group of numbers, variables, geometric figures or anything else |

divisible | capable of being divided by a number (a factor) so that there is a remainder of zero |

dimensions (of a matrix) | number of rows and the number of columns of a matrix, written r x c |

domain | in a function f(x), the possible values for x: the set of values for the independent variable for which a function or relation is define |

edge | a line segment formed by the intersection of two faces (planes) that comprise part of a polyhedron |

arithmetic sequence | a set of numbers arranged so that the difference between any two consectutive numbers is the same |

box-and-whisker plot | a visual dispaly of the five number summary (Q1,Q2,Q3, minimum, maximum) of a set of data |

center of rotation | the fixed point around which a geometric figure is rotated or turned |

circle graph | a graph that shows a circle divided into sectors in order to compare different parts of a data set to each other or to the entire set |

coefficient | a numberical factor in a term containing variables |

circumference | the distance around a circle |

common factor | an integer that is a factor of two or more numbers |

complementary angles | any two angles such that the sum of their measures is 90 degress |

comoposite number | any whole number with more than two factors |

cone | a three-dimensional figure that consists of a circular face (the base), a point not in the plane of the base (the vertix), and a lateral surface that connects the vertex to each point on the boundary of the base |

congruent figures | two or more geometric figures tht have the same size and shape |

coordinate plane | a two-dimensional system in which a location is described by its distances from two perpendicular reference lines (axes) The horizontal axis is the x-axis and the vertical axis is the y-axis. |

cylinder | a three-dimensional figure that consists of two paralletl, congruent, circular regions (bases) and a lateral surface that connects the boundaries of the bases |

decagon | a polygon with ten (10) sides |

dependent variable | the values that change in relationship to each other. |

diagonal | a line segment between non-consecutive vertices in a polygon |

diameter | a chord that contains the center of a circle |

dilation | a transformation in which a figure grows larger. dilations may be with respect to a point or an axis related to the graph of a geometric figure |

isosceles triangle | a triangle with at least two congruent sides |

linear equation | an equation of degree 1; graph is aline; shows a relationship between two variables; an equation of the form y = mx + b where a and b are real numbers |

matrix | a set of numbers in a rectuangluar dispaly with rows and columns |

mean | a measure of central tendency which is affect4ed by all data points; calculated by finding the sum of the data values and dividing by the number of data points |

mode | a measure of central tendency that is the most frequently occurring value |

measures of central tendency | descriptive statistics that describe the center of the data set; mean, mediam, mode |

nonagon | a polygon with nine sides |

natural numbers | the coutning numbers, the positive whole numbers; a positive integer |

octagon | a polygon with eight sides |

odd integer | any integer that, when divided by 2, does not have an integer as the quotient |

ordered pair | a pair of number used to locate a point in a coordiante plane |

origin | in a coordinate plane, the point at the intersection of the x and y axes |

outlier | any value in a set of data that is notabley farther from the mean than the other data |

outcome | in a probability experiment, the result of an event |

pentagon | a polygon with five sides |

perfect square | any natural nubmer that can be expressed as a natural number multiplied by itself |

percent | per cent means per one hundred; a special ratio in which the denominator is always 100 |

parallelogram | any quadrilateral with both pairs of opposite sides parallel |

perimeter | the distance around a geometric figure |

pi | the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter; approximatley 22/7 or diceimal approximation 3.14 |

perpendicular lines | two lines that intersect to form right angles |

plane figures | geometric figures that exist in two dimensions (a plane) |

geometric sequence | a set of numbers arrnaged so that the ratio between any two consecutive sequence elements is constant |

greatest common factor | the greatest number that is a factor of two or more numbers |

height | the perpendicular distance between two geometric objects |

heptagon | a polygon with seven sides; also called a septagon |

hexagon | a polygon with six sides |

histogram | a graph with bars used to dispaly categorical data; the categories are consecutive, numerical and in equal intervals; |

hypotenuse | in any right triangle, the side opposite the right angle; the hypotenuse is always the longest side of the right triangle because it is opposite the angle of greatest measure (90 degrees) |

independent variable | refer to values that change in relationship to each other |

integer | the set of whole numbers and their opposites |

inequality | a mathematical sentence that compares two expressions that may or may not be equivalent |

interquartile range | the difference between the numeric values representing the 75th and 25th percentiles |

irrational numbers | a number that cannot be written as the ratio of two integers; when written as a decimal, the digits of an irrational number neither terminte nor repeat |

equation | a mathematical statement that two or more expressions are equivalent |

equilateral triangle | a trinalge with three congruent sides and three congruent angles; each angle measures 60 degrees |

equivlent | equal in value |

even integer | an integer that is a nultiple of 2 |

expression | a combination of variables, numbers, and/or operations that represents a mathematical relationship but no statement of equality or inequality |

exponent | a number that indicates how many tiems the base is used as a factor |

face | a polygon that forms one of the flat surfaces of polyhedron |

experimental probability | a statement of probability based on the results of a series of actual trials |

factor | a number or expression that is mulitpled by one or more other numbers or expressions to yield a produce |

frequency distribution | a list of values a varialbe assumes in a sample; |

formula | an equation that shows the relationship between two or more quantities; often in the form of a mathematical rule |

Fundamental Counting Principle | if there are M ways to do one thing, and N ways to do another, then there are MxN wyas of doing both. The fundamental counting principle in the guiding rule for finding the number of ways to accomplish two tasks. |

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rdye