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GEO

Exam #1

TermDefinition
Geography description of the earth/change+process. Dynamic always changing.
Location absolute+relative
Place Physical+human characteristics. eg: farms, industries, fauna, flora, rocks, mountains
Human Environment interaction-kind of clothes, crops.
Movement People, ideas, flora+fauna, technology.
Regions formation+change
Europe why Europe's economic success? relative location: excellent perfect location for trading; peninsulas:body of land surrounded by water in 3 sides. Perfect for trade; Ocean access+ports; river network+canals; diverse environments ;naturals resources(silver, coal, iron,gas);fertile land;
why europes economic success? 2 fertile land, diverse peoples; diversity +relatively small' high complementary; high transferability; legacy of Roman empire; area functional specialization; infrastructure;agrarian revolution, industrial revolution, political revolution.
High complementary One region produces something that the other needs and viceversa eg: Italy and Norway
Infrastructure About running water, internet coverage, cellphone coverage
Iconography Use of symbols to express the identity of a region. Ca be tangible, no tangible, bad or good.
Geomorphology How the earth surface is formed and how it changes.Plate tectonics, volcanic activity. weathering erosion what causes (water lie precipitation, ocean, winds, plants, humans, sun, freeze/thaw action, glaciers)
Glaciers left a lot of fertile floors 1. fertile European lowlands 3. Alps 4. fjords (can find them in Iceland, Norway, Alaska) coastal canyons caused by glaciers melting.
Revolutions agrarian revolution 17-19 century.
physiography The natural landscape with its array of landforms (such as mountains and plateaus) is a key element in the total physical geography of any part f the terrestrial world.
Land hemisphere the hemispheres on the earth containing the largest possible total areas of land and ocean respectively.
Local functional specialization the production of particular goods by particular people in particular places.
Industrial revolution the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to some time between 1820 and 1840.
Nation state Europe political revolution produced a form of political-territorial organization. A territorial state embodied by its culturally distinctive population.
Nation refers to a people with a single language, a common history, a similar ethnic background.eg: Japan, Poland
State Independent political unit occupying a defined, permanently populated territory with full sovereign control
Multination state state that has a lot of nations in it. eg: Canada, Spain (Bosques+Catalonia), U.K. (England, Scotland)
Stateless nations Roma
Partnation state divided into different states. Former east west Germany
Indo-European languages a family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Complementary one area produces a surplus of a commodity required by another area. It must be needed somewhere else. when 2 areas each require the other's products, we speak of double complementary.
Transferability the ease with which a commodity can be transported by producer to consumer.
Metropolis the central city plus its suburban ring
Central business district (CBD) the oldest commercial part of the urban agglomeration
Centrifugal forces to identify and measure the strength of such division, which may result from religious, racial, linguistic, political, economic, or other regional factors.
Centripetal forces the binding, unifying glue of the state or region. General satisfaction with the system of government and administration, legal institutions, and other functions of the state(notably including its treatment of minorities) can ensure stability at the
Supranationalism a voluntary associations in economic, political, or cultural spheres of 3 or more independent states willing to yield some measure of sovereignty for their mutual benefit. eg:EU
4 motors of Europe France, Lombardy, Catalonia and Baden-Wurttemberg.
Devolution describe the powerful centrifugal forces whereby regions or peoples within a state, through negotiation or active rebellion, demand and gain political strength and sometimes autonomy at the expense of the center.
Microstates do not have the attributes of "complete" states but ate on the map as tiny yet separate entities nonetheless, such as Monaco, San Marino, Andorra, and Liechtenstein.
Site the physical attributes of the place it occupies.
situation its location relative to surrounding areas.
Primate city is one that is disproportionately large compared to all others in the urban system and exceptionally expressive of the nation's culture.
estuary the low countries are situated at the estuary of the great Rhine and Scheldt rivers and have access to the seas that has, throughout histry, bee the envy of the Germans and the French.
Landlocked location can constitute crucial barriers to economic development but, as is so often the case, geography poses constraints in one way while offering opportunities in another.
Hegemony political dominance
World cities a city generally considered to be an important node in the global economic system.
The break of bulk a port that collects, stores, and transships large quantities of goods.
entrepot where transfer facilities and activities prevail.
exclave a territory legally or politically attached to a main territory with which it is not physically contiguous because of surrounding alien territory.
irredentism a government's open support for fellow ethnic or cultural cohorts in neighboring or more distant countries
heartland theory the central or most important part of a country, area, or field of activity.whoever controls the heartland, controls the entire world.
continentaly inland climatic environment remote from moderating and moistening maritime influences
Permafrost North of this line, water in the ground is permanently frozen, creating an even more formidable obstacle to settlement and infrastructure than the severe weather alone. It affects other high-latitude environments as well ( Alaska, for example)
Tundra biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
Taiga pines , boreal forest, snowforest.
Steppe semiarid grassland
Forward capital capital cities
Federation the sharing of power between country's central government and its political subdivisions (Providences, states, or, in the soviet case "socialist republics").
Russification a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities give up (whether voluntary or not) their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
Command economy state planners assigned the production of particular places, often disregarding the rules of economic geography. eg: the manufacturing of railroad cars might be assigned to a factory in Latvia
Satellite states a country that is formally independent, but under heavy political and economic influence or control by another country.
Near abroad newly independent republics which emerged after the dissolution of the soviet union
Distance decay how increasing distances between places tend to reduce interactions among them.
Population implosion not a lot of population
Cultural pluralism smaller groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities, and their values and practices are accepted by the wider culture provided they are consistent with the laws and values of the wider society.
Physiographic regions many landscape regions that we use their names in everyday parlance . (flew over the rocky mountains )
Rain shadow effect The mountains block the passage of rain producing weather systems and cast a "shadow" of dryness behind them.
Fossil fuel energy resources (oil, natural gas, coal)
Urban system A system of new cities emerged that specialized in the collection and processing of raw materials and the distribution of manufactured products.
American manufacturing belt extended into southern Ontario as new technologies and innovations emerged, and specializations such as Detroit automobile industry strengthened.
Outer city edges cities, outskirts of major metropolita areas eg: Stamford, Hoboken
Deindustrialization a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry.
Gentrification "urban renewal" a dynamic that emerges in poor urban areas when residential shifts, urban planning, and other phenomena affect the composition of a neighborhood.
Sunbelt States of the U.S. southern tier ever more attractive to internal migrants
Migrations during the past century, such transforming forces have generated a number of major migrations of which the still continuing shift to the west and south is only the latest.
Melting pot society becoming more homogeneous
first nations the various aboriginal peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit or Metis
cross border linkages Atlantic provinces with neighboring New England; Quebec with New York State; Ontario with Michigan and adjacent Midwestern states; the prairie provinces with the upper midwest; and british columbia with the (us)oacific northwest.
secession withdrawing formally from membership pf a federation or body. eg a political state.
technopoles state of the art, high technology industrial complexes including Austin at the heart of it.
Racial profiling the use of an individual's race or ethnicity by law enforcement personnel as a key factor in deciding whether to engage in enforcement. (make traffic stop or arrest)
Pacific rim to describe the discontinuous regions surrounding the great pacific ocean that have experienced spectacular economic growth and progress over the last 3 decades.
tar sands a deposit of sand impregnated with bitumen
Boreal forest taiga, snowforest
urbanization people living in cities.
Barkanzation fragmentation of a region into smaller often hostile units eg: former Yugoslavia
Shatterbelt region caught between external rivals and often fragmented. eg: eastern europe
regional state "economic" states that transcends national boundaries eg: 4 motors of europe
rimland theory whoever controls the Greenland, controls the entire world.
internet back bone cities why not to move industries to the middle. 75% of the world's internet activity in DC, Chicago and San Francisco
Globalization =interdependency what affects other parts of the world, affects us all.
24/7 economy+ culture you can buy anytime you want, get cash, walk-in doctors etc.
Flex time work place work from ome, flexible times, work 4 days a week.
Choices more than 1 choice. a lot of brands
urban decentralization corporations moving out of big cities
suburban down towns having own shops in suburbs. more convenient
Marginalization of poor cities getting more and more expensive. Low income have to start moving out eg: Stamford, Brooklyn
Gated communities cities kind of look the same now "placelessness" "generica" places are all beginning to look the same .eg same shopping centers.
Created by: catarivan