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Chapter 4 S.S Vocab

Secession The formal withdraw of a state from the Union.
Popular Sovereignty A system in which the residents vote to decide an issue.
Underground Railroad A system of routes along which runaway slaves were helped to escape to Canada or to safe areas in the free states.
Harriet Tubman One of the most famous conductors of the Underground Railroad, who was born a slave in Maryland in 1820 or 1821.
Harriet Beecher Stow Published "Uncle Tom's Cabin", which stressed that slavery was not just a political contest, but also a great moral struggle.
Franklin Pierce The Whig vote in the South fell dramatically, which helped produce a victory for the Democratic candidate.
Dred Scott A slave whose owner took him from the slave state of Missouri to free territory in Illinois and Wisconsin back to Missouri. He went to the Supreme Court about being granted freedom in those territories.
Stephan Douglas A Democratic incumbent. Was a well-known two-term senator with an outstanding record and a large campaign chest.
Abraham Lincoln A self-educated man who had been elected to one term in Congress in 1846. Later on became President of the United States in 1860.
Confederacy When South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America.
Jefferson Davis A former senator that the Confederates elected as President.
Fort Sumter
Bull Run A seesaw affair. In the morning the Union had the upper hand, but the Confederates held firm, inspired by General Thomas J. Jackson (aka. Stonewall Jackson)
Stonewall Jackson Confederate General who inspired the Confederates to stay firm. Was given the nickname Stonewall Jackson when another general shouted, "There stands Jackson like a stone wall!"
Ulysses S. Grant Union general. Captured 2 Confederate forts in just 11 days.
Robert E. Lee Confederate general who took place of Johnston. He drove McClellan away from Richmond in order to save the Confederate capitol.
Antietam The bloodiest single-day battle in American history. Fought on September 17. The casualties totaled more than 26,000.
Emancipation Proclamation The document in which President Lincoln commanded his troops to seize enemy resources such as food and livestock. The troops were to burn houses and barns that belonged to people who rebelled against it.
Conscription A draft that forced men to serve in the army.
Clara Barton A dedicated Union nurse that founded the Red-Cross Association.
Income tax A tax that takes a specified percentage of an individual's income.
Gettysburg The location of one of the most decisive battles of the war. The battle lasted 3 days.
Gettysburg Address A famous speech delivered by Abraham Lincoln in November 1863, at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg.
Vicksburg One of the two remaining Confederate strongholds on the Mississippi River.
William Tecumseh Sherman Commander of the military division of the Mississippi. One of the two appointments that was to change the course of the war.
Appomattox Court House Town near Appomatox, Virginia, where Lee surrendered to Grant on April 9, 1865.
Thirteenth Amendment An amendment to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1865, that has abolished slavery and involuntary servitude.
John Wilkes Booth A 26-year-old actor and Southern sympathizer that assassinated President Abraham Lincoln on April 14, 1865. He shot Lincoln and jumped from the balcony onto the stage and fled the scene. He was later found and shot to death in a tobacco shed.
Freedmen's Bureau A federal agency that was set up to help former slaves after the Civil War.
Reconstruction The period of rebuilding that followed the Civil War, during which the defeated Confederate states were readmitted into the Union.
Radical Republicans Republicans in Congress that were angered by Lincoln's Reconstruction Plan.
Andrew Johnson Abraham Lincoln's successor.
Fourteenth Amendment A amendment of the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1868, that makes all persons born or naturalized in the United States- including former slaves- citizens of the country and guarantees equal protection of the laws.
Fifteenth Amendment An amendment of the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1870, that prohibits the denial of voting rights to people because of their race or color or because they have previously been slaves.
Scalawag A white southerner who joined the Republican Party after the Civil War
Carpetbagger A Northerner who moved to the South after the Civil War.
Hiram Revels The 16 African Americans who were elected into Congress from the South.
Sharecropping A system in which landowners give farm workers land, seed, and tools in return for a part of the crops they raise.
Ku Klux Klan (KKK) A secret organization that used terrorist tactics in an attempt to restore white supremacy in Southern states after the Civil War.
Created by: Haley.Brinkman