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chapter 4

muscular system

abduction Moves away from the midline.
adduction Moves toward the midline.
Adhesion Band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally.
ataxia Inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movement, typically a shaky movement and unsteady caused by activity in the cerebellum
atonic Meaning lacking normal muscle tone or strength
atrophy Means weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures
bradykinesia Extreme slowness in movement, a symptom of Parkinson’s disease
carpal tunnel syndrome The carpal tunnel is a narrow, bony passage under the carpal ligament that is located one-fourth of a inch below the inner surface of the wrist.
chronic fatigue syndrome Disease of unknown cause that affects many body systems.
circumduction Circular movement of a limb at the far end
dorsiflexion Bends the foot upward at the ankle
dyskinesia Distortion or impairment of voluntary movement such as a tic (spasmodic muscular contraction) or spasm
dystaxia Partial ataxia, mild form of ataxia
dystonia Is a condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement
electromyography Diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation which is used when people have symptoms of weakness and examination shows impaired muscle strength
Electroneuromyography Diagnostic procedure for testing and recording neuromuscular activity by the electric stimulation of the nerve trunk that carries fibers to and from the muscle to determine the site of a nerve lesion or of muscle pathology.
epicondylitis Inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow
ergonomics Study of the human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment
exercise physiologist Specialist who works under the supervision of a physician to develop, implement, and coordinate exercise programs, and administer medical tests to promote physical fitness
fasciitis Inflammation of a fascia
fibromyalgia syndrome Debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, diffuse or specific muscle, joint or bone pain, and a wide range of other symptoms causing weakness
ganglion cyst Harmless fluid-filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist
heel spur Calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near it’s attachment to the calcaneus (heel) bone that can be one of the causes of plantar fasciitis
hemiparesis Slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body
hemiplegia Total paralysis affecting only one side of the body. This form of paralysis is usually associated with a stroke or brain damage. Damage to one side of the brain causes paralysis on the opposite of the body
hyperkinesia Abnormally increased muscle function or activity
hypertonia Condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles
hypokinesia Abnormally decreased muscle function or activity
hypotonia Condition in where there is diminished tone of the skeletal muscles
inpingement syndrome Occurs when inflamed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint
intermittent claudication Pain in the leg muscles that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest due to poor circulation associated with peripheral vascular disease
muscular dystrophy Group of 30 or more genetic disease that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement, without affecting the nervous system
myasthenia gravis Chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles
myocele Herniation or protrusion of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it
myoclonus Sudden involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles
myofascial release Specialized soft tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of conditions such as fibromyalgia, myofascial pain syndrome, movement restrictions, temporomandibular joint disorders and carpal tunnel syndrome
myolysis Degeneration or breaking down of muscle tissue
myoparesis Weakness or slight muscular paralysis
myorrhaphy Surgical suturing a muscle wound
myotonia Neuromuscular disorder characterized by the slow relaxation of the muscles after a voluntary contraction
nocturnal myoclonus Jerking of the limbs that can occur normally as a person is falling asleep
oblique Meaning slanted or at an angle alignment
paralysis Loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injury to it’s nerve supply
paraplegia Paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body
physiatrist Physician who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation with the focus on restoring function
plantar facitis Inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot causing foot or heel pain when walking or running
polymyositis Muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body mainly affecting those muscles closest to the trunk or torso resulting in severe weakness
pronation Turning the palm of the hand downward or backward
quadriplegia Paralysis of all four extremities
sarcopenia Loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that comes with aging
shin splint Painful condition caused by the muscle tearing away from the tibia (shin bone) caused by repeated stress to the lower leg such as running on hard surfaces
singultus hiccups;;;; Myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound with each spasm
spasmodic torticollis Stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side
sphincter Ring like muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway
sprain Injury to a joint, such as an ankle, knee or wrist involving a stretched or torn ligament
tenodesis Surgical suturing of the end of a tendon to a bone
tenodynia Pain in a tendon
tenolysis Release of a tendon from adhesions
tenorrhaphy Surgical suturing together of the divided ends of a tendon
Created by: wood33971