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Chapter 1 vocab

10 key terms P. 35

TermDefinition
Geography The study of the earth's surface and the process that shape it, the connections between places, and the complex relationships between people and their environments
GIS A geographic information system, which uses computer technology to collect and analyze data about the earth's surface in order to solve geographic problems
Absolute Location The position on earth in which a place can be found
Hemisphere A half of earth
Relative Location The position of a place in relation to another place
Character of a place The physical and human characteristic that help to distinguish a place from other places
Perception All the forms of water that fall to earth from the atmosphere, including rain and snow
Formal Region A group of places that have similar attributes, for example, a political region
Functional Region A group of places connected
Perceptual Region An area defined by subjective perceptions that reflect the feelings and images about key places characteristics
Core The earth's center, consisting of very hot metal that is dense and solid in the inner core and molten, or liquid, in the outer core
Mantel A thick layer of mostly solid rock beneath the earths's crust that surrounds the earth's core
Crust The solid, rocky surface layer of the earth
Lithosphere The surface features of earth, including soil, rocks, and landforms
Atmosphere The layer of gases, water vapor, and other substances above the earth
Hydrosphere The water contained in oceans, lakes, rivers, and under the ground
Biosphere The world of plants, animals, and other living things in earth's land and waters
Continent Any of the seven large landmasses of the earth's surface
Relief The differences in elevation, or height, of the landforms in any particular area
Plate Tectonics The theory that the earth's outer shell is composed of a number of large, unanchored plates, or slabs of rocks, whose constant movement explains earthquakes and volcanic activity
Continental Drift Theory The idea that continents slowly shift their positions due
Ring of Fire A ring of volcanic mountains surrounding the Pacific Ocean
Weathering The chemical or mechanical process by which rock is gradually broken down, eventually becoming soil
Mechanical Weathering The actual breaking up or physical weakening of rock by forces such as ice and roots
Chemical Weathering The process by which the actual chemical structure of rock is changed, usually when water and carbon dioxide cause a breakdown of the rock
Acid Rain Rain whose high concentration of chemicals usually from industrial pollution, pollutes water, kills plant and animal life, and eats away at the surface of stone and rock; a form of chemical weathering
Erosion The movement of weathered materials including gravel, soil, and sand, usually caused by water, wind, and glaciers
Sediment Particles of soil and rock carried and deposited by water, wind, or ice
Loess Fine-grained, mineral-rich loam, dust, or silt deposited by the wind
Glacier A huge, slow-moving mass of snow and ice
Moraine A ridge like mass of rock, gravel, sand, and clay carried and deposited by glacier
Created by: Daniel Galindo