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osteoma a bone tumour
fascicle a bundle of muscle fibres
osteoblast a cell in the bone marrow that produces bone
osteoclast a cell in the bone marrow that reabsorbs bone
periosteum a dense fibrous membrane that covers the surface of the bone and contains blood and lymph vessels, and nerves
spina bifida a genetic disorder that results in malformation of the spine due to imperfect joining of the vertebrae
sternocleidomastoid a muscle of the chest arising from the sternum and inner part of the clavicle
ribs a series of 12 pair of curved bones attached to the vertebral column which provides protection for internal organs
tendon a strap composed of connective tissue that joins muscle to bone
crest a type of bone process that has a large ridge shape
lordosis abnormal inward curvature of the spine
scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
irregular bones all other bones that cannot be grouped under other headings
kyphosis an exaggerated outward curvature of the thoracic vertebrae
appendage any body part attached to a main structure
spondylolisthesis any slipping (subluxation) of a vertebra from its normal position in relationship to the one beneath it
ligament band of connective tissue that connects bone to bone
pelvis basin-shaped structure that supports the sigmoid colon, rectum, bladder and other soft organs of the abdominopelvic cavity
splinting bone immobilization by application of an orthopedic device to the injured body part
casting bone immobilization by application of a solid, stiff dressing formed with plaster of Paris or similar material
traction bone immobilization by application of weights and pulleys to align or immobilize a fracture
osteoporosis bone pores or cavities resulting from a decrease in bone denisty
short bones bones that are as wide as they are long
sternum breast bone/chest plate
sinus cavity or hollow space in a bone
syndactylism condition of fingers and toes being joined together
talipes equinovarus congenital deformity of one or both feet in which the foot is pulled downward and laterally to the side; also called club foot
appendicular skeleton consists of bones of the shoulders, hips, upper and lower extremities
musculoskeletal system consists of bones, joints, and muscles, which provide the body with support, protection, and the ability to move
axial consists of the bones of the skull, thorax, and vertebral column
NSAIDs nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs - decrease pain and suppress inflammation
flexion decrease the angle of a joint
bunion (halture valgus) deformity characterized by lateral deviation of the great toe as it turns in toward the second toe, which may cause the tissue surrounding the joint to become swollen and tender
spondylosis degeneration of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae and related tissues
crepitation dry, gating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture of joint reduction
hemarthrosis effusion of blood into a joint cavity
dorsiflexion elevates the foot
sequestrectomy excision of a sequestrum
synovectomy excision of a synovial membrane
bursectomy excision of bursa
metacarpectomy excision of the bones of the hand
laminectomy excision of the posterior arch of a vertebra
contractive fibrosis of connective tissue in the skin, fascia, muscle, or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint
ganglion cyst fluid-filled tumour that most commonly develops along the tendons or joint of the wrists of hands, but may also appear in the feet
podiatry foot treatment
rickets for of osteomalacia in children caused by vitamin D deficiency; also called rachitis
long bones found in extremities of the body
bone marrow found within larger bones; responsible for the production of blood cells
sequestrum fragment of necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue
diathrosis freely moveable joints
arthrodesis fusion/stabilization or binding of a joint
compact bone hard, outer layer of bone
myelcele hernia of the spinal cord
synarthroses immovable joints
bone grafting implantation or transplantation of bone tissue from another part of the body or from another person to serve as replacement for damage or missing bone tissue
exacerbation increase in severity of a disease or any of its symptoms; also called flare
extension increased the angle of a joint
arthritis inflammation of the joints
claudication lameness, limping
tuberosity large, rounded process
cancellous lattice like arrangement of bony plates occurring at the ends of long bones
cruciate ligaments ligaments that cross each other forming an X within the notch between the femoral condyles
hypotonia loss of muscular tone or a diminished resistance to passive stretching
plantar flexion lowers the foot (Points the toes)
multiple myeloma malignant tumour of plasma cells in the bones marrow
pelvimetry measurement of the pelvis
rotation moves a bone around its own axis
abduction moves away from the midline
adduction moves closer to the midline
inversion moves the sole of the foot inward
eversion moves the sole of the foot outward
strain muscular trauma caused by violent contraction or an excessive forcible stretch
fissure narrow, slit-like opening
mineral bone density test noninvasive procedure that uses low-energy x-ray absorption to measure bone mineral density and usually measures bones of the spine, hip, and forearm; also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry
scintigraphy nuclear medicine procedure that visualizes various tissues and organs after administration of a radionuclide
meatus opening or passage into a bone
CTS - carpal tunnel syndrome painful condition resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel
paraplegia paralysis of lower spine, lower portion of the trunk and both legs
quadriplegia paralysis of the upper spine and all 4 extremities
subluxation partial or incomplete dislocation
amputation partial or complete removal of an extremity due to trauma or circulatory disease
phantom limb perceived sensation, following amputation of a limb, that the lim still exists
phalangeal pertaining to the bones of the fingers and toes
femorotibial pertaining to the femur and the tibia
substernal pertaining to under the sternum
articulation place of union between 2 or more bones; also called joint
bones principal organs of support and protection in the body
reduction procedure that restores a bone to its normal position
bone immobilization procedures used to restrict movement, stabilize and protect a fracture, and facilitate the healing process
hematopoiesis production and development of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow
head prominent, rounded, articulating end of a bone
flat bones provide a broad surface for muscular attachment and protection for internal organs
arthrocentesis punture of a joint space using a needle to remove accumulated fluid
lumbarsacral spinal radiography radiography of the five lumbar vertebrae and the fused sacral vertebrae, including anteroposterior, latera, and oblique views of the lower spine
myelography radiography of the spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium to identify and study spinal distortions caused by tumours, cysts, herniated intervertebral disks, or other lesions
discography radiological examination of the intervertebral disk structures with injection of a contrast medium
open reduction reduction in which fracture bones place in their proper position during surgery
closed reduction reduction in which fractured bones are realigned by manipulation rather than surgery
muscular tissue refers to all of the contractile tissue of the body; two main types are voluntary or involuntary
salicylates relieve mild to moderate pain and reduce inflammation
muscle relaxants relieve muscle spasms and stiffness
prosthesis fitting replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute, such as an artificial extremity
bone revision sx (symptom) revision surgery are often required to correct bone infection, misalignments of bones, broken prosthesis, and fractures of the bone around the prosthesis
intervertebral disks round structure with a gelatinous mass in the center that separates the vertebrae
foramen rounded opening through a bone to accommodate blood vessels and nerves
condyle rounded, articulating knob
herniated disks rupture of a vertebral disk's center through its outer edge and back toward the spinal canal with pressure on the adjacent spinal nerve that results in pain, numbness, or weakness in one or both legs
bone scintigraphy scintigraphy procedure in which radionuclide is injected intravenously and taken up into the bone
arthrography series of radiographs taken after injection of contrast material into a joint cavity, especially the knee or shoulder, to outline the contour of the joint
amphiarthrosis slightly moveable joints
tubercle small, rounded process
torticollis stiff neck caused by spasmodic contraction of the neck muscle
muscles structures that contract providing movement of the bone
revision surgery surgery repeated to correct problems of a previously unsuccessful surgery or to replace a worn out prosthesis
arthroclasia surgical breaking of an ankylosed joint to provide movement
patellapexy surgical fixation of the kneecap
THR (total hip replacement) surgical procedure to replace a hip joint damaged by degenerative disease, commonly arthritis
sprain tearing of ligament tissue that may by slight, moderate, or complete
voluntary that which is done with control. Usually a striated muscle such as the biceps
involuntary that which occurs with no discretionary control usually a visceral muscle
epiphysis the end or extremity of the bone
atlas the first cervical vertebra which supports the skull
sacrum the five sacral vertebrae which are fused into a single bone
lumbar vertebrae the 5 vertebrae situated in the lower back which carry most of the weight of the torso
latissimus dorsi the large muscle of the back
gluteus maximus the large muscle of the buttocks
ilium the later flaring portion of the hip bone; upper of the 3 parts of the hip bone
ischium the lower part of the hip bone
agonist the muscle that produces the movement
antagonist the muscle that relaxes in order to allow a movement
axis the 2nd cervical vertebra which provides rotation of the skull
cervical vertebrae the 7 vertebrae which form the skeletal framework of the neck
diaphysis the shaft or long main portion of the bone
coccyx the tail of the vertebral column consisting of 4 or 5 fused vertebrae (tailbone)
pubis the 3rd portion of the hipbone that is situated in front of the bladder
thoracic vertebrae the twelve vertebrae which support the chest and serve as a point of articulation for the ribs
vertebrae the twenty-six bones which make up the adult vertebral column
osteoclasis to break a bone for therapeutic purposes
calcium supplement treat and prevent hypocalcemia
gold salts treat rheumatoid arthritis by inhibiting activity within the immune system
pronation turns the palm down
supination turns the palm up
EMG use of electrical stimulation to diagnose the health of muscles and the nerve cells that control them
trochanter very large, irregularly shaped process found only on the femur
arthroscopy visual examination of the interior of a joint and its structures using a thin, flexible fiberoptic scope called an arthroscope that contains a magnifying lens, fiberoptic light, and miniature camera that projects images on a monitor
Created by: deyoht_kwa