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Axial Skeleton

Axial Skeleton includes the _____,_____,and _____. Skull, vertebral column, and the thoracic cage(ribs and sternum).
At birth, how many bones are in the body? 270 Bones
The skull has how many bones? 22 Bones
What are the air filled cavities in the bones? Sinuses
What bones are sinuses found in? Frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary.
What cavity are sinuses connected to? The nasal cavity.
What are the holes that allow passage for nerves and blood vessels called? Foramina(plural) Foramen(singular)
What floors the roof and walls of the cranium? Cranial Vault (calvaria)
What is the base of the cranium called? Cranial Floor/ or base
What are the 3 basins that the cranial base is divided into? Anterior cranial fossa (frontal lobes of brain, Middle cranial fossa (deeper and accommodates the temporal lobes of brain), and the Posterior cranial fossa (deepest, houses the cerebellum).
What are the four large sutures of the on the parietal bones of the skull? Sagittal, Coronal, Lamboid, and Squamous.
What are the four parts/regions of the temporal bones? Squamous part, Tympanic part, Mastoid part, and the Petrous part.
Which region articulates with the squamous suture, the zygomatic process, and the mandibular fossa? The Squamous part/region.
Which region surrounds the external acoustic meatus and includes the styloid process? The Tympanic part/region.
Which region lies posterior to the tympanic part and includes the mastoid process? The Mastoid part/region.
Which region is found in the cranial floor and houses the middle and inner ear cavities? The Petrous part/region.
What is the hole called that the spinal cord leaves the brain through, and in what bone is it located? The foramen magnum is located in the occipital bone.
What is the knuckle-like structure on each side of the foramen magnum, the site where the vertebrae attach? The occipital condyle.
What protuberance is found dorsal from the foramen magnum and is for muscle attachment? The external occipital protuberance.
What bones are located at the temples? The temporal bones.
What process forms most of the cheek arch? The zygomatic process.
What is the depression where the mandible fits into the temporal bone? The mandibular fossa.
What is the small hole for the carotid artery in the temporal bone known as? The carotid canal.
What is the hole, larger and posterior of the carotid canal, that is for the jugular vein called? The jugular foramen.
What process is located posterior of the external acoustic canal? The mastoid process.
What is the small "fang" process that extend inferiorly from the temporal bones? The styloid process.
What is the opening to the ear called? The external acoustic canal.
What bone contains the frontal sinuses, supraorbital margin, and the supraorbital foramen? The frontal bone.
Where is the supraorbital margin/notch/foramen? Upper part of eye socket.
What is the butterfly shaped bone that contains the greater and lesser wings and forms a central wedge that articulates with all the other cranial bones? The sphenoid bone.
The lesser wings of the sphenoid bone contain the ______. The optic foramen.
The body of the sphenoid bone has a saddle-like prominence called the _______, which houses the pituitary gland. Sella turcica.
Which bone is located between the orbital cavities and forms most of the bony area between the nasal cavity and orbits? The ethmoid bone.
The superior surface of the ethmoid bone has a pair of horizontal_________. Cribiform plate(s).
What are the tiny holes on the cribiform plates- that allow passage for olfactory nerves called? Olfactory Foramina.
What is the triangular process that projects superiorly between the cribiform plates? Crista galli.
What is the inferior projection that forms the superior part of the nasal septum- dividing the nasal cavity into right and left nasal fossae? The perpendicular plate.
What masses are on both sides of the perpendicular plate? The lateral masses (also called the ethmoid sinuses).
What extends medially from the lateral masses and are delicately coiled? The superior and middle nasal conchae.
What are the largest facial bones, forming the upper jaw, and meets at the medial suture? The Maxillae(plural) Maxilla (singular).
The _____ _____ is located at the junction of the maxilla and the greater wing of the sphenoid. Inferior-orbital fissure.
What is the bony socket where the roots of teeth are inserted into? The Alveolus.
What is the inferior border where the maxillae carry the teeth called? The Alveolar margin.
What is the passage just below the orbit which is a passage for blood vessels and nerves to the face and nose called? Infraorbital Foramen.
What are the hard and soft palates on the roof of the mouth called? Palatine process.
What bone(s) form the hard palate, part of the wall of the nasal cavity, and part of the floor orbit? Palatine Bones (2)
What bone(s) form the angle in the cheeks, are inferior to the eyes, and includes the zygomatic process of the temporal bones? The Zygomatic Bones (2)
What bone(s) form the medial wall of each orbit and houses a membranous sac where tears are collected? Lacrimal bones (2)
What bone(s) are small and retangular bones that form the bridge of the nose? Nasal Bones (2)
what bone forms the inferior portion of the nasal septum, and resembles the blade of a plow? The Vomer (1)
What are the 3 structures that make up a nasal bone? The perpendicular plate(superior part) , the vomer and hyaline cartilage(anterior part).
What is the strongest bone of the skull that provides attachment for muscles of mastication and facial expression(s)? The Mandible (lower jaw)
What is the horizontal part of the mandible? The mandibular body
What is the vertical part of the mandible called? Mandibular ramus
What is the part of the mandible where the body and ramus meet called? Mandibular angle
What is the point on the chin called? The mental protuberance
Whats located in the lateral surface of the mandibular body and is the passageway for vessels and nerves to the chin? Mental foramen.
Whats located on the medial surface of each mandibular ramus and permits the passing of nerves responsible for tooth sensation into the lower jaw? Mandibular foramina.
What is the oval knob that articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone -creating the temporomandibular joint? Mandibular condyle.
What is the anterior branch of the ramus and point of attachment for the temporalis muscle called? The coronoid process.
what is the u-shaped arch between the two coronoid processes called? The mandibular notch.
What are the 3 bones of the middle ear called? Malleus(hammer), Incus(anvil), and Stapes(stirrup).
What is the slender bone between the chin and larynx called? The Hyoid bone.
What are the indentations between the bones of the fetal skull called? Fontanels
What is a baby's soft spot called? the Anterior(frontal) Fontanel.
What are the conical protrusions in parietal bones that enclose at 22 months called? Ossification centers (bone growth centers).
What are the 4 functions of the vertebral column? 1. Supports Skull and Trunk 2. Allows for trunk movement 3. Protects and absorbs stress(protects spinal cord) 4. Provides attachment for limbs, ribs, and muscles.
What are the 5 groups of the vertebral column? Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, and Tiny Coccygeal.
Where is the cervical vertebrae? C 1 - C 7 (C1:atlas and C2:axis)
Where is the thoracic vertebrae? T 1 - T 12 (12 ribs)
Where is the Lumbar vertebrae? L 1 - L 5
Where is the sacral vertebrae? S 1 - S 5 (by adulthood- they fuse as the sacrum)
Where are the coccygeal? Co 1 - Co4
What are the 4 curvatures of the vertebral column that occur after the age of 3? Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, and Pelvic.
What is the weight bearing portion of a vertebra that provides inferior and superior surfaces for the intervertebral discs? The body (centrum).
What is the ovoid/triangular canal that is dorsal to the body of each vertebra? The Vertebral Foramen.
Collectively the vertebral foramen are called? Vertebral canal.
What is the projection that comes from the body of a vertebra that is pointed and angles downward? The spinous process.
What extends laterally from the point where the pedicle and lamina meet? The Transverse Process.
Whats makes up the vertebral arch? The pedicle, transverse process, and lamina.
The _____ ______ ______ projects upward from one vertebra and meets the matching ____ ____ ____ to form another vertebra. Superior articular processes and Inferior articular processes. Together called Facet Joints.
When two vertebrae are joined, the opening between their pedicles is called? Intervertebral Foramen
What is the pad consisting of an inner nucleus pulposus surrounded by a ring of cartilage called? Intervertebral discs.
What are the 4 functions of the intervertebral discs? 1. Binds vertebrae together 2. Increases spine flexibility 3. Supports body weight 4. Absorbs shock
What is the cervical vertebra that supports the head and has a delicate ring surrounding a large vertebral foramen? C 1 - the Atlas
What part of the cervical vertebrae allows for 45% of the heads rotation? C 2- the Axis
What is the prominent knob on the axis called? the Dens
What part of the vertebrae has prominent round transverse foramen in each transverse process? The Cervical Vertebrae
What is the prominent bump on the lower back of the neck? The C 7- spinous process.
What has 12 vertebrae corresponding to 12 ribs and lacks transverse foramen? Thoracic Vertebrae.
What are the small,smooth, slightly concave spots on the thoracic vertebrae? Costal facets.
Ribs are inserted between two vertebrae- So, rib 6 articulates with the _____ _____ _____ of the upper T5 and the _____ _____ _____ of T6. inferior costal facet of T5 and the superior costal facet of T6.
What is the bony plate that form the dorsal wall of the pelvic cavity? The Sacrum.
On the anterior side of the sacrum - what are the 4 pairs of large holes used passage of nerves and arteries to the pelvic organs called? Anterior sacral foramina.
What is the anterosuperior margin of the first sacral vertebra that bulges anteriorly into the pelvic cavity called? Sacral promontory.
On the dorsal surface of the sacrum, the spinous processes of the vertebrae fuse into a dorsal ridge called....? The Median sacral crest.
On the dorsal side of the sacrum, there are 4 pairs of openings for spinal nerves called the _____. Posterior sacral formania.
The canal that runs through the sacrum is called...? The sacral canal.
The sacral canal ends in the inferior opening called the_____. The sacral hiatus.
The large wing-like extensions at the top of the sacrum are called_____. Ala(e).
The vertebrae that has a thich stout body and a blunt squarish spinous process is? The Lumbar vertebrae.
The thoracic cage consists of what 3 things? Thoracic vertebrae, sternum, and ribs.
What is the bony plate anterior to the heart? The sternum.
What is the broad superior portion of the sternum that has a medial notch and RT & LT clavicular notches? The mandibrium.
The longest part of the sternum where the 2nd rib attaches to is called? The body.
The inferior end of the sternum that provides attachment for some of the abdominla muscles is called? The xiphoid process.
The_____ ______ is the point where the sternal body and the xiphoid process fuse. Xiphisternal joint.
Ribs 1 - 7 are called what and why? True ribs: because they attach to the sternum.
Ribs 8 - 12 are called what? False ribs: they do NOT attach to the sternum.
Ribs 11 and 12 are called? Floating ribs: because they do NOT attach to ventrally.
Created by: Anniemal

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