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MDA 125 Study Guide

Final Review

What is the order of draw in tube colors? Yellow, Red, Light Blue, Tiger Top, Green, Lavender, Gray
What are the additives in each color tube? Yellow: SPS Red: None Light Blue: Sodium Citrate (anticoagulant) Tiger Top: Clot Activator Dark Green: Sodium or Lithium Heparin Lavender: EDTA Gray: Sodium Fluoride/Calcium Oxylate
What are the tests drawn for each color tube? Yellow: Blood Cultures Red: Therapeutic Drug Levels, Titers Light Blue: PT, PTT Tiger: Chemistries, Organ Function, Lipids, Hormones, Vitamin D Green: Magnesium, Blood Ph, Blood Gas Lavender: CBC, HCT, HGB, WBC, RBC, Platelet, ESR Gray: Glucose
Basic unit of measurement for metric system: Volume Weight Volume: Liters Weight: Grams
How long can a tourniquet be left on before a blood draw? Less than one minute
What main color is the gram stain? Gram stain positive: Purple/Violet Gram Stain negative: Pink
What color do gram stain positive bacteria turn? Purple
Is iron needed to make hemoglobin? Yes
What can cause a hematoma to form? Leaving the tourniquet on too long, wrong size needle for vein
How do you prepare a blood smear? 1 drop of whole blood on a slide. Use another slide to smear the blood into a feather effect at end of smear.
What good can happen of using rapid test kits? Faster results Ability to prescribe antibiotics faster Reliable/Inexpensive
List some things you can do as a phlebotomist that can make a vein "pop up" Use heat Palpate Tourniquet BP cuff Pt make fist Arm below heart
What can do if you don't invert your tubes right away? A microclot can form.
Why is a microclot bad? Because the additive won't get mixed in with the blood and then the test is ruined
What are the three main cell types and what are their functions? WBC/Leukocyte: Fight Infection RBC/Erythrocyte: Carry oxygen Platelet/Thrombocyte: Aid in clotting
What is the normal range for thrombocyte/platelet? 200,000-400,000
Why do we wipe away the first drop of capillary blood? So there are no tissue fluids in the test
What do you do if you poke someone's finger and no blood comes out? Apply steady pressure at the first knuckle. Gently reapply pressure if a puncture starts to clot. Repoke of necessary
What is the most common test for a tube with EDTA? EDTA=Lavender Most common test: CBC
What are dermatocytes? Pathogens that affect the hair, skin and nails Examples: Ringworm, Pediculosis
Your patient comes in to see the doctor because s/he is not feeling well. The doc wants a blood culture X2 and wants to prescribe antibiotic. When should you collect the test? Before the pt takes the antibiotic prescribed.
When doing a throat culture, where do you swab? back of the throat, tonsils, and anywhere you see white patches. Do NOT swab the tongue, cheek or gums
What is the very first thing you should do what you prepare a patient for a blood draw? Greet them and set them at ease. Communicate.
What is equal to 0 degrees Celsius? 32 Degrees F
If anything goes wrong during a blood draw, what is the first thing you should do? Pop the tourniquet.
What can happen if the tourniquet is left on too long? It can cause hemoconcentration
What can happen if hemoconcentration occurs? Hemolysis
What is hemolysis? Rupturing of RBC during collection
How is TB detected? Acid Fast stain
What is the most common form of antiseptic used for blood draws? Alcohol
How do we describe a HCT test? % of packed RBC in a given amount of blood
Why do we test HCT? Check for anemia
What is post exposure prophylaxis Medication you take after being exposed to a dirty needle stick
What do you do if you've been stuck by a dirty needle? Safety the needle, wash your hands, tend to your PT, tell your supervisor
What is a really important vitamin for the clotting process? Vitamin K
What can cause anemia? Renal failure, malabsorption, Vit K deficiency, sickle cell
What is hemolytic anemia? an autoimmune disease that causes the body to destroy it's own RBC
What color stopper evacuation tube is used for coagulation testing? Light Blue
Name two tests that check for coagulation PT, PTT
If you perform a hemoglobin test, would you say it could tell you the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood? Yes
What can cause hemolysis in a blood sample to occur? Leaving the tourniquet on too long, too large of a needle, bevel down, not all the way in the vein
What are normal ranges for ESR in male/female Male: 0-10 Female: 0-20
Created by: JDenning8984