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Respiratory Reverse Defs

cystic fibrosis a hereditary disease of the exocrine glands affecting the respiratory system, pancreas, and sweat glands
diaphragm a large muscle located between the chest and the abdominal wall
rhonchus abnormal breath sound heard on auscultation of an obstructed airway
crackle abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation, caused by exudates, spasms, hyperplasia, or when air enters moisture-filled alveoli; also called rale
anoxia absence of oxygen in the tissues
anosmia absence of the sense of smell
pulmonary edema accumulation of extravascular fluid in lung tissues and alveoli, most commonly caused by heart failure
corticosteriods act on the immune system by blocking production of substances that trigger allergic and inflammatory actions
pertussis acute infectious disease characterized by a cough that has a "whoop" sound; also called whooping cough
coryza acute inflammation of the membranes of the nose; also called head cold or upper respiratory infection
sputum an abnormal viscous fluid formed in the lower respiratory tract that often contains blood, pus, and bacteria
tuberculosis (tb) an infectious disease caused by inhaling viable tubercle bacilli
pneumonia an inflammatory disease of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, disease, chemicals, etc.
stethoscope an instrument used in auscultation
tonsillotome an instrument used to cut the tonsils
antihistamines block histamines from binding with histamine receptor sites in tissues
pulmonary embolism blockage in an artery of the lungs caused by a mass of undissolved matter
hemothorax blood in the chest cavity
histamines body substances that dilate blood vessels, causing swelling and inflammation in nasal passages
bronchiectasis chronic dilation of a bronchus or bronchi
atelectasis collapsed or airless state of the lung, which may be acute or chronic and affect all or part of a lung
pneumothorax collection of air in the pleural cavity
adenoids collection of lymphatic tissue within the nasopharynx
palatine tonsils collection of lymphatic tissue within the oropharynx
croup (CROOP) common childhood condition involving inflammation of the larynx, trachea, bronchial passages and, sometimes, lungs
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently normal, healthy infant, usually less than 12 months of age; also called crib death
asphyxia condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen
hypercapnia condition of an increased amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
hemoptysis condition of spitting up blood
respiratory system consists of organs that are responsible for the breathing process. It exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide at a cellular level
decongestants constrict blood vessels of nasal passages and limit blood flow, which causes swollen tissues to shrink so that air c an pass more freely through the passageways
antibiotics destroy or inhibit the growth of bacteria by disrupting their membranes or one or more of the metabolic process
dysphonia difficulty in speaking; hoarseness
dyspnea difficulty breathing
pneumonconiosis disease caused by inhaling dust particles, including coal dust, stone dust, iron dust, and asbestos particles
deviated nasal septum displacement of cartilage dividing the nostrils that causes reduced airflow and, sometimes, nosebleed
finger clubbing enlargement of the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes, commonly associated with pulmonary disease
pleura effusion excess of fluid in the pleural cavity
acidosis excessive acidity of body fluids
pneumectomy excision of a lung or a portion of the lung, commonly for treatment of cancer
pleurectomy excision of part of the pleura, usually parietal pleura
eupnea good breathing
cilia hairlike structures
stridor high-pitched, harsh, adventitious breath sound caused by a spasm or swelling of the larynx or an obstruction in the upper airway
hyperpnea increased breathing, deeper than normal
sinusitis inflammation of a sinus
pleurisy inflammation of the pleural membrane characterized by a stabbing pain that is intensified by coughing or deep breathing; also called pleuritis
pharyngoscope instrument used to view the throat
Mantoux test intradermal test to determine tuberculin sensitivity based on positive reaction where the area around the test site becomes red and swollen
expectorants liquefy respiratory secretions so that they are more easily dislodged during coughing episodes
aerosol therapy lung treatment using various techniques to deliver medications in mist form directly to the lungs or air passageways
sweat test measurement of the amount of salt in sweat
postural drainage method of positioning a patient so that gravity aids in the drainage of secretions from the bronchi and lobes of the lungs
sputum culture microbial test used to identify disease-causing organisms of the lower respiratory tract, especially those that cause pneumonias
computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) minimally invasive imaging that combines computed tomography scanning and angiography to produce images of the pulmonary arteries
mucous membrane moist tissue layer lining hollow organs and cavities of the body that open to the environment; also called mucosa
stenosis narrowing or constriction
epistaxis nasal hemorrhage, also called nosebleed
oximetry noninvasive method of monitoring the percentage of hemoglobin saturated with oxygen; also called pulse oximetry
nares nostrils
ventilation-perfusion (VQ) scan nuclear scan that evaluates both airflow and blood flow in the lungs for evidence of a blood clot in the lungs; also called VQ lung scan
hypoxemia oxygen deficiency in arterial blood; usually a sign of respiratory impairment
hypoxia oxygen deficiency in body tissues; usually a sign of respiratory impairment
lobular pertaining to a lobe
throacic pertaining to the chest area
pulmonary pertaining to the lungs
spirometry PFT that measures the breathing capacity of the lungs, including the time necessary for exhaling the total volume of inhaled air
endotracheal intubation procedure in which a plastic tube is inserted into the trachea to maintain an open airway
tachypnea rapid breathing
antitussives relieve or suppress coughing by blocking the cough reflex in the medulla of the brain
Cheyne-Stokes respiration repeated breathing pattern characterized by fluctuation in the depth of respiration, first deeply, then shallow, then not at all
orthopnea respiratory condition of discomfort breathing in any but an erect or standing position
pleura serous membrane which envelops the lungs and folds over to line the walls of the thoracic cavity
epiglottitis sever, life-threatening infection of the epiglottis and supraglottic structures that occurs most commonly in children between 2 and 12 years of age
sleep apnea sleeping disorder in wich breathing stops repeatedly for more than 10 seconds, causing measurable blood deoxygenation
bronchioles smaller branches of the bronchi
bronchodilators stimulate bronchial muscles to relax, thereby expanding air passages, resulting in increased air flow
tracheostomy surgical procedure in which an opening is made in the neck and into the trachea into which a breathing tube may be inserted
thoracentesis surgical puncture and drainage of the pleural cavity; also called pleurocentesis or thoracocentesis
septoplasty surgical repair of a deviated nasal septum usually performed when the septum is encroaching on the breathing passages or nasal structures
pH symbol that indicates the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance
carbon dioxide (CO2) tasteless, colourless, odourless gas produced by body cells during the meobolism
oxygen (O2) tasteless, odourless, colourless gas essential for human respiration
apnea temporary loss of breathing
polysomnography test of sleep cycles & stages using continuous recordings of brain waves electrical activity of muscles eye movement respiratory rate blood pressure blood O2 saturation heart rhythm n sumx direct observation of the person during sleep using a video camera
arterial blood gas (ABG) test that measures dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide in arterial blood
throat culture test used to identify pathogens, especially group A streptococci
visceral pleura the innermost layer lying next to the lung
parietal pleura the outermost layer, lining the thoracic cavity
nasopharynx the portion of the pharynx above the soft palate and behind the nose
percussion the process of gently tapping with the fingers to determine position, size or consistency of an underlying structure
auscultation the process of listening to body sounds, especially in the chest with the use of a stethoscope
mediastinum the space between the right and left lung, which contains the heart, aorta, esophagus, and the bronchi
bronchi the two branches off the trachea which lead to the right and left lungs
serous membrane thin layer of tissue that covers internal body cavities and secretes a fluid that keeps the membrane moist; also called serosa
alveoli tiny air sacs within the lungs; resembling small balloons
diffuse to move or spread out a substance at random, rather than by chemical reaction or application of external forces
cartilage tough, elastic connective tissue that is more rigid than ligaments but less dense than bone
pulmonary function tests (PFTs) variety of tests used to evaluate respiratory function, the ability of the lungs to take in and expel air as well as perform gas exchange across the aveolocapillary membrane
bronchoscopy visual examination of the bronchi using an endoscope inserted through the mouth and trachea for direct viewing of structures or for projection on a monitor
laryngoscopy visual examination of the larynx to detect tumours, foreign bodies, nerve or structural injury, or other abnormalities
mediastinoscopy visual examination of the mediastinal structures including the heart, trachea, esophagus, bronchus, thymus, and lymph nodes
larynx voice box, responsible for sound production
septum wall dividing two cavities
antral lavage washing or irrigating of the paranasal sinuses to remove mucopurulent material in an immunosuppressed patient or one with known sinusitis that has failed medical management
wheeze whistling or sighing sound heard on auscultation that results from narrowing of the lumen of the respiratory passageway
trachea windpipe. cartilaginous tube which extends from the larynx to the bronchial tubes
Created by: deyoht_kwa